The results obtained showed that both maize tortilla and maize pozol lowered triglycerides and LDL, in spite of a high intake of sucrose solution (Figures 1 and 3). Persistent insult moved towards metabolic syndrome, however, the animals that fed on these traditional foods had less damage, as shown by the biochemical variables among which the values of the lipids presented significant differences in the last week of the experiment.
Maize tortillas and maize pozol had different effects on the modulation of glucose levels in plasma. Maize tortillas are prepared with maize dough, the “masa”, on a traditional hot metal surface, the “comal”, or in industrial “tortilladoras”, whereas maize pozol is simply dissolved and drunk. The different preparation processes may modify the composition of the components , including the concentration of resistant starch  or of phenolic compounds . Notwithstanding that the values of glucose in plasma showed no differences on week 28, differences were recorded for HbA1c (Figure 2). It must be remembered that while the evaluation of glucose in plasma is transversal, that of HbA1c is more dynamic as it records a glucose average during the half life of the red blood cells.
The protective effect of maize starches on the liver has been demonstrated in models of liver ischemia-reperfusion . A high intake of fructose, present in sucrose, is associated with an increase in global mortality caused by non-alcoholic liver damage. Both maize tortillas and maize pozol presented a protective effect against the hepatotoxic effect of the sucrose solution, as the means of the ALT values in these groups were similar to those in the witness group, whereas the means of this enzyme in the plasma of the group with no supplementary traditional food increased (Figure 4).
Considering that this study applied the culinary preparations that people have used for millennia, it contributes to recommending the food that may be beneficial to most of the population within a geographical region. The retrieval of traditional cuisine dishes is an attempt to apply the findings of epidemiological studies and connect them to sustainability  and sociocultural-ecological  approaches, in order to design better recommendations based on specific food items  and diminish the high or increasing burden of disease or death associated with unhealthy diets, for the prevention and control of NCD .
The results of this experiment also show that, in a model more similar to the conditions in which NCD develop, the intake of specific food items, though decreasing the effects of the environment in the form of a sucrose solution, in the long run produces the metabolic changes of the metabolic syndrome, even in the presence of protective foods. The value of these results must be placed in the context of recommending types of food as part of a way of life, more than in recommending a particular food item to treat hyperlipidemia or to decrease the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus or hypertension [30, 31].
The contribution of this study lies in the need to elaborate recommendations for a healthy nutrition based on meals, not individual nutrient items . This emphasis considers that they are not equivalent  and that all culinary preparations made with one individual food item do not have the same effect on metabolism and health . Experimental studies with humans have shown that the way one cooks is important, as in the case of black beans with respect to glucose metabolism . The way fish is prepared also has an effect on the prevention of cardiometabolic, cerebral vascular and Alzheimer’s diseases, according to epidemiological studies [33, 34]. Thus, it is important to analyse the effect of maize tortillas on achieving a healthy phenotype, not only for Mesoamerica where there is a high intake of this food, but to establish a line of research to analyse the effect of food preparation in traditional kitchens on the metabolic profile of the population.
This study on tortillas and pozol, traditional Mexican food items, does not define whether the changes are the result of the metabolism of probiotics, of the metabolic activity of prebiotics [19, 35] or of changes in chromatin methylation, among other possible mechanisms. However, it is a first study aimed at establishing the molecular modifications that govern the genes that are expressed and those that remain silent, and determining the reason behind the presence of healthy obese phenotypes and of obese phenotypes associated with diseases following food intake patterns.