Coenzyme Q10 supplementation improves metabolic parameters, liver function and mitochondrial respiration in rats with high doses of atorvastatin and a cholesterol-rich diet
© Jiménez-Santos et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014
Received: 6 December 2013
Accepted: 14 January 2014
Published: 25 January 2014
The aim of this study was to evaluate the actions of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) on rats with a cholesterol-rich diet (HD) and high doses of atorvastatin (ATV, 0.2, 0.56 or 1.42 mg/day).
Two experiments were done, the first one without coenzyme Q10 supplementation. On the second experiment all groups received coenzyme Q10 0.57 mg/day as supplement. After a 6-week treatment animals were sacrificed, blood and liver were analyzed and liver mitochondria were isolated and its oxygen consumption was evaluated in state 3 (phosphorylating state) and state 4 (resting state) in order to calculate the respiratory control (RC).
HD increased serum and hepatic cholesterol levels in rats with or without CoQ10. ATV reduced these values but CoQ10 improved even more serum and liver cholesterol. Triacylglycerols (TAG) were also lower in blood and liver of rats with ATV + CoQ10. HDL-C decreased in HD rats. Treatment with ATV maintained HDL-C levels. However, these values were lower in HD + CoQ10 compared to control diet (CD) + CoQ10. RC was lessened in liver mitochondria of HD. The administration of ATV increased RC. All groups supplemented with CoQ10 showed an increment in RC. In conclusion, the combined administration of ATV and CoQ10 improved biochemical parameters, liver function and mitochondrial respiration in hypercholesterolemic rats.
Our results suggest a potential beneficial effect of CoQ10 supplementation in hypercholesterolemic rats that also receive atorvastatin. This beneficial effect of CoQ10 must be combined with statin treatment in patient with high levels of cholesterol.
KeywordsCoenzyme Q10 Atorvastatin Hypercholesterolemia
Hypercholesterolemia is considered a risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. The World Health Organization expectancy for 2020 is a death rate of 71% due to ischemic cardiomyopathy [1, 2]. According to the 2012 National Health Survey , the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia in Mexico was 13% in adult population. As it is well known, statins constitute the current therapeutic tool for hyperlipidemia. Atorvastatin is widely used by clinicians due to its competitive action on HMG-CoA reductase that results in a decrement of plasma total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C). It also reduces apolipoprotein B and the triacylglycerol levels . The hypocholesterolemic action of statins is well known in human beings and in animal models. Statins also produce lower levels of plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol, and higher levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) . Statins are generally well tolerated, however they may show undesirable effects such as myositis, rabdomyolysis and liver damage, but their beneficial actions exceed their collateral effects and so they continue being the first choice for the prevention of coronary cardiovascular disease .
Mevalonate is a precursor of endogenous cholesterol and other metabolites like ubiquinone, dolichol and other isoprenoids . Ubiquinone is also known as coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), it belongs to a family of compounds that share a common structure, the benzoquinone ring, and differ in their isoprenoid lateral chain length; CoQ10 is a redox component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain that synthesizes ATP. The reduced form of CoQ10 (ubiquinol) is a powerful lipophilic antioxidant that participates in tocopherol and ascorbate recycling as antioxidants . Other reports suggest that statins reduce CoQ10 biosynthesis in the liver. This reduced content could diminish oxygen consumption by the mitochondria and therefore affect the respiratory control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of CoQ10 on metabolic parameters, liver function and mitochondrial respiration in rats with high doses of atorvastatin and a cholesterol-rich diet, a condition which is severely harmful  in rodents. It was employed a ATV1 (0.2 mg/day) dose in rats (200 g body weight) because it is equivalent to a ATV dose of 60 mg/day in a human being (60 Kg body weight). ATV2 (0.56 mg/day) and ATV3 (1.42 mg/day) correspond to 2.8 and 7 fold higher doses.
Body weight gain and liver weight as a percentage of body weight
Weight gain and liver percentage relative to body weight in rats with cholesterol-rich diet, atorvastatin and with or without coenzyme Q 10 supplementation
CD + ATV2(0.56 /day)
HD + ATV1(0.2 g/day)
HD + ATV2(0.56 mg/day)
HD + ATV3(1.42 mg/day)
Body weight gain (g)
114 ± 20
126 ± 23
140 ± 4ª
130 ± 7
135 ± 24
104 ± 38
95 ± 71
102 ± 361
117 ± 8a,1
77 ± 28b,1
108 ± 61
96 ± 8b,1
Relative to body weight (%)
2.9 ± 0.2
2.7 ± 0.1a
4.7 ± 1.3a
4.5 ± 0.3
4.3 ± 0.3
4.3 ± 0.5
2.38 ± 0.11
3.2 ± 0.1a, 1
3.92 ± 1.1a
3.9 ± 0.11
3.08 ± 0.13b, 1
3.2 ± 0.18b, 1
Triacylglycerol concentration in serum increased in HD (77.5 ± 12.5 mg/dL) in comparison with CD (58.6 ± 7.4 mg/dL). HD + ATV1, 2, 3 did not diminish the TAG levels in comparison with HD, however, in HD + ATV3, TAG levels were higher (102 ± 16 mg/dL) in comparison with HD (77.5 ± 12.5 mg/dL). All TAG values were minor when CoQ10 was added as a supplement (Figure 1C, D) (p < 0.05).
HDL-C in serum showed a significant decrease in HD (16.1 ± 0.4 mg/dL) with respect to CD (26.0 ± 2.6 mg/dL) (p < 0.05). Treatment with HD + ATV1, 2, 3 maintained HDL-C levels similar to those of CD group, but lower to those of CD + CoQ10 (36.82 ± 2.7 mg/dL). Groups CD + CoQ10, HD + CoQ10 and CD + ATV2 + CoQ10 showed higher values (36.8 ± 2.7 mg/dL, 28.7 ± 3.2 mg/dL, 34.2 ± 2.1 mg/dL, respectively) than CD without CoQ10 (26.0 ± 2.6 mg/dL). However, HDL-C levels were lower in HD + ATV1, 2, 3, + CoQ10 (20.2 ± 1.5, 18.6 ± 0.6, 21.8 ± 1.4 mg/dL, respectively) than in CD + CoQ10 (36.82 ± 2.7 mg/dL) (Figure 1E, F).
Serum glucose levels significantly increased in HD and HD + CoQ10 (110.2 ± 1.2 mg/dL and 99.6 ± 0.7 mg/dL, respectively) in comparison with CD and CD + CoQ10 (88.8 ± 4.9 mg/dL; 53.4 ± 12.9, respectively). The treatment with HD + ATV1 decreased glucose level. However, it was obtained a significant diminution in groups CD, CD + ATV2, HD and HD + ATV1 treated with CoQ10 supplementation (Figure 1G, H) in comparison with HD not supplemented.
Effect of a cholesterol-rich diet and atorvastatin with or without coenzyme Q 10 supplementation on transaminases
CD + ATV2
HD + ATV1
HD + ATV2
HD + ATV3
67.1 ± 9.19
56.32 ± 0.8a
84.8 ± 7.9a
128.0 ± 8.9b
60.9 ± 2.5b
57.10 ± 5.11b
49.05 ± 5.58
48.33 ± 3.861
102.6 ± 9.91
94.10 ± 18.40
44.15 ± 6.45b,1
56.8 ± 0.75b
165.2 ± 9.7
209.2 ± 10.83a
223.6 ± 14.27a
273.7 ± 6.98b
224.6 ± 8.8
196.0 ± 7.31b
227.8 ± 1.98
164.0 ± 1.90a,1
313.3 ± 4.87a,1
239.9 ± 9.05b,1
261.4 ± 11.20b,1
247.5 ± 15.45b,1
Cholesterol and triacylglycerols from the liver
The administration of a cholesterol-rich diet produced a significant increase in hepatic cholesterol in HD (12.43 ± 2.84 mg/g) and HD + CoQ10 (6.42 ± 0.86 mg/g) compared with CD (2.71 ± 0.86 mg/g) or CD + CoQ10 (2.30 ± 0.75 mg/g). ATV administration in HD + ATV1,2,3 decreased cholesterol levels in comparison with HD and a more significant response was obtained when CoQ10 was supplemented.
Effect of CoQ 10 supplementation on liver cholesterol and triacylglycerols of rats with a cholesterol-rich diet and atorvastatin
CD + ATV2
HD + ATV1
HD + ATV2
HD + ATV3
2.71 ± 0.86
2.77 ± 0.33
12.43 ± 2.84a
7.80 ± 1.73b
8.71 ± 0.62b
7.38 ± 1.15b
2.30 ± 0.75
1.87 ± 0.34a,1
6.42 ± 0.86a,1
2.42 ± 0.47b,1
2.25 ± 0.46b,1
3.30 ± 0.75b,1
5.58 ± 0.88
7.53 ± 0.45a
10.66 ± 0.33a
9.73 ± 1.95
9.70 ± 1.50
6.31 ± 2.23b
4.30 ± 0.551
6.24 ± 1.16a,1
10.70 ± 0.32a
3.73 ± 0.60b,1
2.81 ± 0.11b, 1
6.47 ± 0.20b
Effect of a cholesterol-rich diet and atorvastatin with or without coenzyme Q 10 supplementation on the liver mitochondrial respiratory control index
CD + ATV2
HD + ATV1
HD + ATV2
HD + ATV3
2.98 ± 0.06
2.25 ± 0.25a
2.02 ± 0.51a
2.93 ± 0.27b
1.85 ± 0.15
2.38 ± 0.35
3.20 ± 0.151
4.69 ± 0.27a,1
3.68 ± 0.21a,1
2.72 ± 0.40b
3.55 ± 0.021
3.13 ± 0.221
HD administered to rats induced an increment in serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols (Figure 1A). These results are consistent with previous studies [9, 10]. As expected, when ATV was administered, cholesterol and triacylglycerols showed a dose dependent decrement (p < 0.05). Supplementation with CoQ10 increased the effects of ATV on cholesterol levels. Rats with HD showed a slight increased concentration of serum triacylglycerols. The administration of ATV did not reduce these TAG levels, however, all values were minor when CoQ10 was supplemented (Figure 1C, D).
In our study it was observed a significant diminution of serum cholesterol in rats that received ATV + CoQ10 in comparison with those groups that did not receive CoQ10. These results support a better hypolipidemic effect of ATV in the presence of CoQ10. This improvement in the effect of ATV by CoQ10 has already been reported in Guinea pigs [10, 11].
HDL-C showed a significant decrease in the HD group. The administration of ATV to HD rats did not increase HDL-C values but kept them similar to those observed in CD group. However, HDL-C values were higher in groups CD + CoQ10, HD + CoQ10 and CD + ATV2 + CoQ10 compared to CD without CoQ10 supplementation (Figure 1E, F). These results confirm the beneficial effect of ATV on HDL-C levels and even the more beneficial effect of CoQ10 supplementation on at least in groups CD + CoQ10, HD + CoQ10 and CD + ATV2 + CoQ10.
It is well known that statins inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis in the liver, decrease the intracellular cholesterol content, augment low density lipoprotein-receptor (LDL-R) synthesis as well as the cholesterol uptake by the liver, and diminish serum total cholesterol concentration . In addition, statins increment HDL-C levels throughout an increase of apoprotein A synthesis in the liver  and a reduced activity of cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP).
Mabuchi et al.  reported that co-administration of ATV-CoQ10, favored a significant increase of HDL-C in hypercholesterolemic patients. Singh et al.  observed an important increment of HDL-C in patients that received CoQ10. However, it has been reported no increase in HDL-C in patients that received simvastatin and CoQ10. Nevertheless, it is not clear how is that synergistic effect of CoQ10 on ATV action. It is well known that CoQ10 and cholesterol are synthesized by the same pathway and that high ATV doses produce a significant decrement in CoQ10 levels in plasma [14, 15] and this decrement in serum CoQ10 is related direct or indirectly to the potential liver harm produced by the statin treatment . On the other hand, CoQ10 administration may inhibit the expression of the apo A-I receptor, increasing apoprotein A-I and increasing HDL-C levels .
Our results show that rats that received atorvastatin (0.2 mg/day) and CoQ10 had lower levels of serum glucose than the same group without CoQ10 (Figure 1G, H). In addition, CoQ10 regulates glucose levels throughout a diminution of oxidative stress . On the other hand, other reports have shown that ATV lowers serum cholesterol, increases glucose blood levels and raises insulin resistance . These data altogether suggest that co-administration of CoQ10 and ATV improves glucose metabolism in the hypercholesterolemic state.
Some reports indicate that CoQ10 administration improves pancreatic beta cells function, increases insulin sensitivity and preserves the mitochondrial function in the pancreas . Moreover, CoQ10 diminishes lipoperoxidation and raises glucose uptake. These results suggest that CoQ10 improves glucose metabolism in hypercholesterolemia under atorvastatin treatment.
It was also observed in ATV-treated rats an increment in ALT and AST serum activity. Previous studies have also shown an increase in serum aminotransferases (ALT y AST) in rats that received HD and ATV [20, 21]; these results were related to liver damage. In accordance with these results, other animal models with hypercaloric diet are predisposed to hyperlipidemia and liver steatosis [21, 22]. On the other hand, a study employing ATV in rats did not show change in the activity of serum aminotransferases .
The high serum aminotransferases levels in rats with cholesterol-rich diet are related to liver damage. This harm is due to membrane damage in hepatocytes which produces a lessened antioxidant and detoxification capacity of the liver . Other studies have reported higher activity of transaminases produced by statin administration to rats [21, 22]. On the contrary, our study showed a slight decrement of AST and ALT activity in ATV-CoQ10, treated animals compared with those that received only ATV. Also, Mabuchi et al.  observed a diminution of AST and ALT in patients treated with ATV and CoQ10. Moreover, Abbas and Sakr  reported a diminution of AST and ALT activity in Guinea pigs that received simvastatin-CoQ10, comparing with animals that only received simvastatin. All these results together may assign a protector effect of CoQ10 on the hepatocytes of rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet.
In our study, it was observed that ATV lessened cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentration in the liver in a dose-dependent manner in hypercholesterolemic rats. Several reports suggest that this increment induced by HD contributes to the liver steatosis, as well as the dietary fatty acids and cholesterol promote the lipid accumulation in the hepatocytes. These cells have receptors for the transcription factor PPAR-α, allowing fatty acid oxidation in mitochondria, microsomes and peroxisomes . As a result, fatty acids oxidation products (hydrogen peroxide, oxygen superoxide and lipid peroxides) are produced and induce lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress .
Several studies have shown that a cholesterol-rich diet given to rats produce a fatty liver, hypertrophy of the liver and macroscopic alterations [25, 26] as a consequence of hepatocyte cholesterol saturation; the novo cholesterol synthesis lowers and consequently it is produced a diminished uptake of LDL by its receptors. Results from other studies show a lower activity of HMG-CoA reductase and lower expression of LDL receptors in the liver from rats fed a high fat diet . Our study showed a significant decrease of cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels in the liver of animals treated with ATV and CoQ10, compared with those rats that only received ATV. These results are in coincidence with other reports  that suggest CoQ10 improves the hypolipemiant action of statins. As we already mentioned it is not currently known the mechanism by which CoQ10 increases statins action. Some studies suggest CoQ10 influences the negative feedback of hepatic cholesterol. Moreover, cholesterol metabolism in the liver is mediated by lanosterol 14α demethylase (CYP51) throughout the sterol regulatory binding proteins (SREBPs) [28, 29]. Previous reports studying the effect of the reduced form of CoQ10 on the liver cholesterol metabolism, showed an antagonistic action on the ligand binding to X receptor (LXR) . Liver LXRs induce SREBP-1c, a transcription factor that controls the expression of several genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis and its reverse transport. On the other hand, the amount of dietary cholesterol to be absorbed at the intestine is controlled by a transporter family (ABC), localized at the enterocyte membrane. These proteins pour out cholesterol from the enterocytes to the intestine lumen. The hydroxyl group of the reduced form of CoQ10 is important for this antagonistic action on ABC transporter genes throughout the LXR ligand . This mechanism may explain the cholesterol diminution in serum and liver observed in all animals that received ATV and CoQ10 in our study.
It is generally accepted that a cholesterol-rich diet produces structural mitochondrial alteration in the liver and higher production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with hepatocellular damage [31, 32]. Electron microscope studies in rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver, show scarce mitochondria, higher in size, deformed, hypodense, with paracrystaline inclusions, hepatosteatosis and altered fatty acid oxidation . In our study HD produced a lower respiratory control. Other authors suggest that a high-lipid diet induce deterioration of complex I (NAD: ubiquinone oxidoreductase) and II (succinate dehydrogenase) of the mitochondrial chain . Other reports suggest that statins like pravastatin lessen the mitochondrial respiratory control affecting complex I and IV (cytochrome c oxidase) in skeletal muscle [33, 34]. In addition, simvastatin induces myotube atrophy and cell loss associated with impaired ADP-stimulated maximal mitochondrial respiratory capacity, mitochondrial oxidative stress . It is known that ATV reduces the cholesterol-phospholipid ratio in cellular membrane, raising its fluidity and the activity of ATPase Na+/K+. All these modifications in cellular membrane affect the activity of participating enzymes of the mitochondrial electron transport chain with probable alteration of its bioenergetic function. Our results support that the mitochondrial respiration diminution observed in animals treated with ATV can be attributed to lower levels of CoQ10.
The mitochondrial respiratory chain and particularly complex I and complex III (ubiquinone:cytochrome c oxidoreductase) are able to produce an anion superoxide from oxygen. In hepatocytes from normal rats this is a tenuous production that doesn’t interfere with the respiratory chain activity, but is functioning as a mitochondrial protective antioxidant system. On the other hand, CoQ10 is an invaluable component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain [36, 37] and a diminution in its availability affects for sure the energetic metabolism. It is known that the administration of CoQ10 and simvastatin increased the activity of complex I in cardiomyocytes but decreased with simvastatin alone. On the other hand, there are evidences suggesting that the significant decrease in ATP concentration in simvastatin-treated rats was due to CoQ10 deficiency . Our results show a higher mitochondrial RC in all groups that received ATV and CoQ10. On the same way, Kimura et al.  communicated the increase in muscle fibers contraction in rats that received CoQ10 due to improvement of cell membrane. A study suggests CoQ10 may reduce symptoms related to heart failure and increased energy production in heart muscle . Statins sometimes cause muscle pain and oral CoQ10 might reduce this pain [40, 41].
In our study we observed that ATV decreased mitochondrial respiration but ATV and CoQ10 improved mitochondrial function using succinate as substrate. Statins have been associated with a reduction in serum and muscle tissue coenzyme Q10 levels that may play a role in statin-induced myopathy. Aged people appear to be more susceptible to coenzyme Q10 deficiency. Athletes also require the most efficient oxygen consumption by mitochondria for their performance, and are more susceptible to CoQ10 deficiency. However, there is not a general opinion regarding the effectiveness of CoQ10 supplementation. It seems that those that would gain the major benefit from this supplementation are the hypercholesterolemic patients.
Our results support that the combination ATV and CoQ10 improves biochemical parameters, liver mitochondrial respiratory function in hypercholesterolemic rats with high ATV doses. These results have implications when considering statin safety and effectiveness. Supplementation with CoQ10 may add beneficial effects in hypercholesterolemic patients, being harmless for human beings and also having a hepato-protector action.
All chemicals were purchased from Sigma (St Louis, Mo, USA): sucrose, HEPES (4 - (2-hydroxiethyl)-1-piperazine ethane sulfonic acid, EGTA (ethylen glycol tetraacetic acid), succinic acid, phosphoric acid, magnesium chloride, potassium chloride, bovine serum albumin, sodium deoxycholate, cholesterol, adenosine 5'-diphosphate sodium salt (ADP), ethanol, coenzyme Q10, and Atorvastatin (Lipitor) from Pfizer.
Animals and diets
Male Wistar rats were obtained from Unidad de Producción, Cuidado y Experimentación Animal (UPCEA), División Académica de Ciencias de la Salud (DACS), Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco (UJAT), verified by the Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganadería y Recursos Pecuarios (SAGARPA 2005). All procedures were subject to regulations of animal experimentation from the Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-062-ZOO-1999, and the International Guide for caring and use of laboratory animals NRC 2002, with the approval of the Ethics Committee of Faculty of Medicine, UNAM (PAPIIT-IN221914). Rats at the age of 7 weeks and 180–200 g body weight were maintained under controlled housing conditions: 55% humidity, 21 ± 1°C temperature, 12–12 h light–dark cycle. The Harlan Laboratories diet (2018S) with 18.6% protein, 44.2% carbohydrates, 6.2% fat was used to prepare the diets of each groups (n = 8 each one). The desing of this study included two experiments:
Experiment 1: The total number of animals used was 48, divided into 8 groups. No one had CoQ10 supplementation:
CD Control diet
CD + ATV2 (atorvastatin 0.56 mg/day)
HD Hypercholesterolemic diet (2% cholesterol, 0.6% sodium deoxycholate).
HD + ATV1 (atorvastatin 0.2 mg/day)
HD + ATV2 (atorvastatin 0.56 mg/day)
HD + ATV3 (atorvastatin 1.42 mg/day)
Experiment 2: The total number of animals used was 48, divided into 8 groups. All groups received CoQ10 0.57 mg/day as supplement:
CD Control diet
CD + ATV2 (atorvastatin 0.56 mg/day)
HD Hypercholesterolemic diet (2% cholesterol, 0.6% sodium deoxycholate).
HD + ATV1 (atorvastatin 0.2 mg/day)
HD + ATV2 (atorvastatin 0.56 mg/day)
HD + ATV3 (atorvastatin 1.42 mg/day)
All Animals were given free access to water and diets during the six week experimental time. Diets were freshly prepared each day with grinded food. Body weight was assessed once a week. All animals were kept under the above mentioned experimental conditions for a 6-week period. At the end of treatment and after a 12 h food withdrawal, rats were sacrificed by decapitation. The liver was removed, weighted and 0.5 g were used for biochemical determinations, the remaining liver tissue was used for the assay of mitochondrial respiratory function.
Blood was collected and serum was immediately frozen and stored at −70°C until the biochemical determinations were performed. Serum levels of glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerols, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were analyzed using a Clinical Chemistry System from Random Access Diagnostics.
Cholesterol and triacylglycerols from the liver
Liver lipids were extracted according to the Folch et al.  (1957) procedure, whereas triacylglycerols and cholesterol concentrations were measured using enzymatic colorimetric determinations according to diagnostic kits from BioSystems Laboratories.
Hepatic mitochondria were harvested by centrifugation, washed twice with 250 mM sucrose, 0.5 mM HEPES, 0.5 mM EGTA (SHE) buffer and resuspended in SHE pH 7.2 at a final ratio of 5 ml/g wet weight. Subsequent steps were carried out in the same buffer at 4°C and mitochondria were isolated by differential centrifugation. Briefly, cell debris was eliminated by centrifugation at 3000 g for 10 min, the mitochondrial pellet was obtained by spinning the supernatant for 10 min at 12000 g, it was washed once to eliminate cytosolic contamination, and suspended with SHE buffer to a final protein concentration of 10–30 mg/mL. Protein determination was performed using the Bradford method  (1976).
Respiratory measurements were carried out in 3.5 ml of air-saturated medium with 5 mM succinate, 2 mM MgCl2, 2 mM H3PO4, 2 mM EGTA, 30 mM HEPES, 0.1% BSA, pH 7.2 at 24°C. Oxygen consumption was determined using a Clark-type oxygen electrode. Data are expressed as the respiratory control ratio (RCR), which is a relative value of state 3 and state 4 that indicates the respiratory coupling in availability of ADP  (1967).
Comparisons between means were performed using One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Student–Newman–Keuls test and differences between the groups were determined by the Student's t test (without CoQ10 vs with CoQ10). Differences were considered to reach statistical significance when p < 0.05. For the post hot calculation of the statistical power in the ANOVA test for the experiment, we used the G*Power 3.0.10 software (Franz Faul, Universität Kiel, Germany). We used 20% difference in group (i.e. effect size), α level of 0.05, Total sample size: 96 and number of groups 8, and the value of 16 animals needed, then the power was of 1.00.
1Carretera Rancho, Sur 4a Sección. C.P. 86650. Comalcalco, Tabasco, México.
2Av. Gregorio Méndez Magaña. No. 2838-A. Col. Tamulté. C.P. 86300, Villahermosa, Tabasco, México.
3Av. Universidad 3000. Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán, 04510. México, D.F., México.
Respiratory control ratio
Analysis of variance.
This study was supported by the Program for Research Support and Consolidation of Academic Groups (PFICA) grant No. UJAT-2010-C06 and PAPIIT IN221914.
- Tamaki N, Ueno H, Morinaga Y, Shiiya T, Nakazato M: Ezetimibe ameliorates atherosclerotic and inflammatory markers, atherogenic lipid profiles, insulin sensitivity, and liver dysfunction in Japanese patients with hypercholesterolemia. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2012, 19: 532-538. 10.5551/jat.10835View ArticlePubMed
- Khatibzadeh S, Farzadfar F, Oliver J, Ezzati M, Moran A: Worldwide risk factors for heart failure: A systematic review and pooled analysis. Int J Cardiol. 2013, 168: 1186-1194. 10.1016/j.ijcard.2012.11.065PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Gutiérrez J, Rivera J, Shamah T, Villalpando S, Cuevas L, Romero M, Hernández M: Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición. 2012, México: Resultados nacionales. Cuernavaca, México. Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública,
- Gómez E, Gisbert J, Moreno J, García L, Moreno R: A pilot study of atorvastatin treatment in dyslipemic non-alcoholic fatty liver patients. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006, 23: 1643-1647. 10.1111/j.1365-2036.2006.02926.xView Article
- Catapano AL, Reiner Z, Backer G, Grahan I, Taskinen M-R, Wiklund O, Agewall S, Alegria E, Chapman MJ, Durrington P, Erdine S, Halcox J, Hobbs R, Kjekshus J, Perrone Filardi P, Riccardi G, Storey R, Wood D: ESC/EAS guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias. The Task Force for the management of dyslipidaemias of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS). Atherosclerosis. 2011, 217S: S1-S44.
- Stone NJ, Robinson J, Lichtenstein AH, Merz CN, Blum CB, Eckel RH, Goldberg AC, Gordon D, Levy D, Lloyd-Jones DM, McBride P, Schwartz JS, Shero ST, Smith SC, Watson K, Wilson PW: 2013 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol to Reduce Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk in Adults: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013, doi:pii: S0735-1097(13)06031-2,
- Bookstaver D, Nancy P, Pharm B, Hatzigeorgiou C: Effect of Coenzyme Q10 supplementation on statin-Induced myalgias. Am J Cardiol. 2012, 110: 526-529. 10.1016/j.amjcard.2012.04.026View ArticlePubMed
- Wyman M, Leonard M, Morledge T: Coenzyme Q10: a therapy for hypertension and statin-induced myalgia?. Cleve Clin J Med. 2010, 77: 435-442. 10.3949/ccjm.77a.09078View ArticlePubMed
- Díaz-Zagoya JC, Asenjo , Barrón JC, Cárdenas R, Martínez F, Juárez-Oropeza MA: Comparative toxicity of high doses of vastatins currently used by clinicians, in CD-1 male mice fed with a hypercholesterolemic diet. Life Sci. 1999, 65: 947-956. 10.1016/S0024-3205(99)00324-0View ArticlePubMed
- Uličná O, Vančová O, Waczulíková I, Božek P, Sikurová L, Bada V, Kucharská J: Liver mitochondrial respiratory function and coenzyme Q content in rats on a hypercholesterolemic diet treated with atorvastatin. Physiol Res. 2012, 61: 185-193.PubMed
- Kang MS, Yang HM, Kang JY, Ryou SH, Kang JS: Effect of coenzyme Q10 and Ardisia japonica Blume on plasma and liver lipids, platelet aggregation, and erythrocyte Na efflux channels in simvastatin-treated guinea pigs. Nutr Res Pract. 2012, 6: 414-420. 10.4162/nrp.2012.6.5.414PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Ascaso JF, Fernández-Cruz A, González Santos P, Hernández Mijares A, Mangas Rojas A, Millán J, Felipe Pallardo L, Pedro-Botet J, Pérez-Jiménez F, Pía G, Pintó X, Plaza I, Rubiés-Prat J: HDL Forum Significance of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in cardiovascular risk prevention: recommendations of the HDL Forum. Am J Cardiovasc Drugs. 2004, 4: 299-314. 10.2165/00129784-200404050-00003View ArticlePubMed
- Chapman M, Goff W, Guerin M, Kontush A: Cholesteryl ester transfer protein: at the heart of the action of lipid-modulating therapy with statins, fibrates, niacin, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors. Eur Heart J. 2010, 31: 149-164. 10.1093/eurheartj/ehp399PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Mabuchi H, Nohara A, Kobayashi J, Kawashiri M, Katsuda S, Inazu A, Koizumi J: Effects of CoQ10 supplementation on plasma lipoprotein lipid, CoQ10 and liver and muscle enzyme levels in hypercholesterolemic patients treated with atorvastatin: A randomized double-blind study. Atherosclerosis. 2007, 195: 182-189. 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2007.06.010. 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2007.06.010View Article
- Singh IM, Shishehbor MH, Ansell BJ: High-density lipoprotein as a therapeutic target: a systematic review. JAMA. 2007, 298: 786-798. 10.1001/jama.298.7.786View ArticlePubMed
- Langsjoen P, Langsjoen A: The clinical use of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors and the associated depletion of coenzyme Q10, A review of animal and human publications. Biofactors. 2003, 18: 101-11. 10.1002/biof.5520180212View ArticlePubMed
- Littarru GP, Tiano L: Bioenergetic and antioxidant properties of coenzyme Q10: recent developments. Mol Biotechnol. 2007, 37: 31-37. 10.1007/s12033-007-0052-yView ArticlePubMed
- Mahmoud M, El-Nagar M, El-Bassossy H: Anti-inflammatory effect of atorvastatin on vascular reactivity and insulin resistance in fructose fed rats. Arch Pharm Res. 2012, 1: 155-162.View Article
- Schroeder M, Belloto R, Hudson R, McInerney M: Effects of antioxidants coenzyme Q10 and lipoic acid on interleukin-1 beta-mediated inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin release from cultured mouse pancreatic islets. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2005, 27: 109-122.View ArticlePubMed
- Bhardwaj S, Selvarajah S, Schneider EB: Muscular effects of statins in the elderly female: a review. Clin Interv Aging. 2013, 8: 47-59.PubMed CentralPubMed
- Kumar A, Kaur H, Devi P, Mohan V: Role of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) in cardiac disease, hypertension and Meniere-like syndrome. Pharmacol Ther. 2009, 124: 259-268. 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2009.07.003View ArticlePubMed
- Kučera O, Lotková H, Staňková P, Podhola M, Roušar T, Mezera V, Cervinková Z: Is rat liver affected by non-alcoholic steatosis more susceptible to the acute toxic effect of thioacetamide?. Int J Exp Pathol. 2011, 92: 281-289. 10.1111/j.1365-2613.2011.00765.xPubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Abbas AM, Sakr HF: Simvastatin and vitamin E effects on cardiac and hepatic oxidative stress in rats fed on high fat diet. J Physiol Biochem. 2013, 69: 737-50. 10.1007/s13105-013-0250-yView ArticlePubMed
- Ferre P: The biology of Peroxisome Proliferator–Activated Receptors relationship with lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Diabetes. 2004, 53: 43-50. 10.2337/diabetes.53.2007.S43. 10.2337/diabetes.53.2007.S43View Article
- Murrow J, Sher S, Ali S, Uphoff I, Patel R, Porkert M, Le N, Jones D, Quyyumi A: The differential effect of statins on oxidative stress and endothelial function: atorvastatin versus pravastatin. J Clin Lipidol. 2012, 6: 42-49. 10.1016/j.jacl.2011.08.006View ArticlePubMed
- Yuan G, Wang J, Hegele RA: Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia: an underrecognized cause of early cardiovascular disease. CMAJ. 2006, 174: 1124-1129. 10.1503/cmaj.051313PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Boone LR, Brooks PA, Niesen MI, Ness GC: Mechanism of resistance to dietary cholesterol. J Lipids. 2011, 2011: 1012-1042.View Article
- Goldstein JL, DeBose-Boyd RA, Brown MS: Protein sensors for membrane sterols. Cell. 2006, 124: 35-46. 10.1016/j.cell.2005.12.022View ArticlePubMed
- Yang C, McDonald J, Patel A, Zhang Y, Umetani M, Xu F, Westover E, Covey D, Mangelsdorf J, Cohen J, Hobbs H: Sterol intermediates from cholesterol biosynthetic pathway as liver X receptor ligands. J Biol Chem. 2006, 281: 27816-27826. 10.1074/jbc.M603781200View ArticlePubMed
- Schmelzer C, Okun J, Haas D, Higuch K, Sawashita J, Mori M, Döring F: The reduced form of coenzyme Q10 mediates distinct effects on cholesterol metabolism at the transcriptional and metabolite level in SAMP1 mice. IUBMB Life. 2010, 62: 812-818. 10.1002/iub.388View ArticlePubMed
- Bjorkhem I, Meaney S, Diczfalusy U: Oxysterols in human circulation: which role do they have?. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2002, 13: 247-253. 10.1097/00041433-200206000-00003View ArticlePubMed
- Mari A, DeFronzo RA: Predominant role of reduced beta-cell sensitivity to glucose over insulin resistance in impaired glucose tolerance. Diabetologia. 2003, 46: 1211-1219. 10.1007/s00125-003-1169-6View ArticlePubMed
- Wei Y, Rector R, Thyfault J, Ibdah J: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and mitochondrial dysfunction. World J Gastroenterol. 2008, 14: 193-199. 10.3748/wjg.14.193PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Marcoff L, Paul D, Thompson M: The role of coenzyme Q10 in statin-associated myopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007, 49: 2231-2237. 10.1016/j.jacc.2007.02.049View ArticlePubMed
- Kwak HB, Thalacker-Mercer A, Anderson EJ, Lin CT, Kane DA, Lee NS, Cortright RN, Bamman MM, Neufer PD: Simvastatin impairs ADP-stimulated respiration and increases mitochondrial oxidative stress in primary human skeletal myotubes. Free Radic Biol Med. 2012, 52: 198-207. 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2011.10.449PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Uyuklu M, Meiselman HJ, Baskurt OK: Effect of decreased plasma cholesterol by atorvastatin treatment on erythrocyte mechanical properties. Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 2007, 36: 25-33.PubMed
- Deichmann R, Lavie C, Andrews S: Coenzyme Q10 and statin-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Ochsner J. 2010, 10: 16-21.PubMed CentralPubMed
- Kettawan A, Takahashi T, Kongkachuichai R, Charoenkiatkul S, Kishi T, Okamoto T: Protective effects of Coenzyme Q10 on decreased oxidative stress resistance induced by simvastatin. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2007, 40: 194-202.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Kimura Y, Hyogo H, YamagishI S, Takeuchi M, Ischitobi T, Nabeshima Y, Arihiro K, Chayama K: Atorvastatin decreases serum levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) patients with dyslipidemia: clinical usefulness of AGEs as biomarker for the attenuation of NASH. J Gastroenterol. 2010, 45: 750-757. 10.1007/s00535-010-0203-yView ArticlePubMed
- Kapoor P, Kapoor AK: Coenzyme Q10: A novel molecule. JIACM. 2013, 14: 37-45.
- Caso G, Kelly P, McNurlan MA, Lawson WE: Effect of coenzyme q10 on myopathic symptoms in patients treated with statins. Am J Cardiol. 2007, 99: 1409-1412. 10.1016/j.amjcard.2006.12.063View ArticlePubMed
- Folch J, Lee M, Sloane Stanley GH: A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J Biol Chem. 1957, 226: 497-509.PubMed
- Bradford M: A Rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem. 1976, 72: 248-254. 10.1016/0003-2697(76)90527-3View ArticlePubMed
- Estabrook R: Mitochondrial respiratory control and the polarographic measurement of the ADP: O ratios. Methods in Enzymology. Oxidation and Phosphorylation. Edited by: Estabrook RW, Pullman ME. 1967, 41-47. New York: Academic Press Inc,View Article
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.