Open Access

Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of circulating omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids with lipoprotein particle concentrations and sizes: population-based cohort study with 6-year follow-up

  • Pekka Mäntyselkä1, 2Email author,
  • Leo Niskanen1, 3,
  • Hannu Kautiainen2, 4, 5,
  • Juha Saltevo6,
  • Peter Würtz7, 8,
  • Pasi Soininen8, 9,
  • Antti J Kangas8, 9,
  • Mika Ala-Korpela8, 9, 10, 11 and
  • Mauno Vanhala1, 12
Lipids in Health and Disease201413:28

DOI: 10.1186/1476-511X-13-28

Received: 12 November 2013

Accepted: 6 February 2014

Published: 7 February 2014

Abstract

Background

Cross-sectional studies have suggested that serum omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are related to favorable lipoprotein particle concentrations. We explored the associations of serum n-3 and n-6 PUFAs with lipoprotein particle concentrations and sizes in a general population cohort at baseline and after 6 years.

Findings

The cohort included 665 adults (274 men) with a 6-year follow-up. Nutritional counseling was given at baseline. Serum n-3 and n-6 PUFAs and lipoprotein particle concentrations and the mean particle sizes of VLDL, LDL, and HDL were quantified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for all baseline and follow-up samples at the same time. Concentrations of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs were expressed relative to total fatty acids. At baseline, n-3 PUFAs were not associated with lipoprotein particle concentrations. A weak negative association was observed for VLDL (P = 0.021) and positive for HDL (P = 0.011) particle size. n-6 PUFA was negatively associated with VLDL particle concentration and positively with LDL (P < 0.001) and HDL particle size (P < 0.001). The 6-year change in n-3 PUFA correlated positively with the change in particle size for HDL and LDL lipoproteins but negatively with VLDL particle size. An increase in 6-year levels of n-6 PUFAs was negatively correlated with the change in VLDL particle concentration and size, and positively with LDL particle size.

Conclusion

Change in circulating levels of both n-3 and n-6 PUFAs, relative to total fatty acids, during 6 years of follow-up are associated with changes in lipoprotein particle size and concentrations at the population level.

Keywords

Lipoprotein profile Fatty acid Cohort study

Introduction

Circulating polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may reflect dietary PUFAs although they may also be influenced by other factors such as obesity and insulin resistance. There is observational evidence that dietary intake of omega-3 (n-3) PUFA is associated with a favorable lipoprotein profile especially with higher concentrations of HDL-particles and larger HDL particle size but also with lower concentrations of LDL particles and larger LDL particle size and decreasing concentration of VLDL particles and smaller VLDL particles [1, 2]. However, daily treatment with n-3 fatty acids has not convincingly been associated with reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality [3, 4]. It has been suggested that blood level of n-3 PUFAs may be a better indicator of cardiovascular risk than n-3 supplementation [5]. Omega-6 (n-6) PUFAs may reduce inflammation, insulin resistance and decreases the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) [6] but the clinical benefits of n-6 PUFAs related to decreasing cardiovascular diseases and mortality remains to established [7].

Motoyama et al. have shown that circulating serum n-6 and n-3 PUFAs are inversely related to triglycerides in middle aged men in several cross-sectional studies [8]. Higher serum concentrations of n-6 PUFAs are further associated with lower concentrations of LDL particles and large VLDL particles and a higher concentration of large HDL particles [9]. However, no study has assessed the longitudinal changes of serum n-3 and n-6 PUFAs and their associations with changes in lipoprotein particle concentrations and sizes at the population level. We therefore analyzed the longitudinal associations between changes in serum n-3 and n-6 PUFA concentrations with corresponding changes of lipoprotein particle concentrations and sizes in a population-based setting during 6-year follow-up.

Methods

Study population

All of the inhabitants in the town of Pieksämäki, Finland, who were born in 1942, 1947, 1952, 1957, and 1962 (n = 1,294) were invited for a health check-up in 1997-1998 (baseline visit) and again in 2003-2004 At the Primary Health Care Unit in Pieksämäki, Finland. Of those invited, 923 (71%) participated in the first check-up [10]. Of these, 688 subjects (74.5%) attended the second health check-up six years (mean follow-up period) later. All variables analysed in the present study were available from 665 subjects (274 men and 391 women). During the first health examination, the nurses were instructed to counsel all the participants to embrace more healthy lifestyles, including advising them to replace hard fats (e.g. butter, greasy milk, greasy red meat) with smooth fats (e.g. vegetable oil, chicken, fish) and liquid margarines, use olive oil or rapeseed oil in preparing food, and increase the consumption of fish. The protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of Kuopio University Hospital. All of the participants gave their informed written consent.

Clinical and laboratory procedures

Both health check-ups were performed by the same two nurses. Waist circumference was measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Blood samples were taken after an overnight fast. Glucose and serum lipids were measured by standard enzymatic methods [10] from fresh serum samples and analyzed in the laboratory of the Kuopio University Hospital. Insulin was determined by Phadeseph Insulin Radio Immunoassay (RIA) 100 method (Pharmacia Diagnostics AB, Uppsala, Sweden). Concentrations of lipoprotein subclass particles were analysed by high-throughput nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of native serum samples as described previously [1114]. The mean size of the VLDL, LDL, and HDL particles was calculated by weighting the corresponding subclass diameters with their particle concentrations. The diversity of fatty acid saturation was quantified from serum extract samples [13]. NMR spectroscopy was used conducted for all baseline and follow-up samples at the same time in 2009. For statistical analysis, the ratios of PUFA concentrations (mmol/L) to total fatty acid concentration (mmol/L) were examined.

Statistical methods

The data are presented as means with standard deviations. The 95% confidence intervals for the lipoprotein particle concentrations and sizes were obtained by bias-corrected, accelerated bootstrapping (5000 replications). Statistical significance for hypotheses of linearity was evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA), Jonckheere-Terpstra test, or Cochran-Armitage test. Linearity across the particle concentrations of tertiles of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs was tested by using bootstrap-type general linear models with an appropriate contrast adjusted for age, sex, smoking and BMI, antihyperglycemic medication and lipid-lowering medication at baseline. Respectively, associations between the change in n-3 and n-6 PUFAs% with changes in total VLDL, LDL, and HDL particle concentrations and mean particle sizes during follow-up were estimated with regression analysis using Sidak-adjusted probabilities. These longitudinal changes were adjusted for age, sex, smoking and BMI, antihyperglycemic medication and lipid-lowering medication at baseline. Repeated data (relative change over time) were analysed using generalising estimating equations (GEE) models with the unstructured correlation structure. Generalized estimating equations were developed as an extension of the general linear model (eg, OLS regression analysis) to analyze longitudinal and other correlated data.

Results

Table 1 shows the baseline characteristics of the study population by gender. The mean age was 46 years and BMI 26.5 kg/m2. The use of lipid lowering, antihypertensive and glucose lowering agents was not frequent in the study population at baseline.
Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the study population

 

Women

Men

P-value

N = 391

N = 274

Age, years, mean (SD)

46 (6)

46 (6)

0.52

Body mass index, kg/m2, mean (SD)

26.3 (5.2)

26.8 (3.6)

0.21

Waist, cm, mean (SD)

83 (23)

94 (10)

<0.001

Lipid lowering medication, n (%)

5 (1)

11 (4)

0.023

Antihypertensive medication, n (%)

36 (9)

33 (12)

0.24

Antihyperglycemic medication, n (%)

1 (0)

6 (2)

0.022

Total cholesterol, mmol/L, mean (SD)

5.6 (0.97)

5.7 (0.98)

0.047

HDL cholesterol, mmol/L, mean (SD)

1.5 (0.33)

1.3 (0.30)

<0.001

Triglycerides, mmol/L, mean (SD)

1.2 (0.63)

1.6 (0.92)

<0.001

Glucose, mmol/L, mean (SD)

5.6 (0.59)

5.9 (0.96)

<0.001

Insulin, mU/L, mean (SD)

9.9 (7.3)

10.3 (5.2)

0.38

Current smoking, n (%)

80 (21)

77 (27)

0.024

Reported use of alcohol, n (%)

309 (79)

239 (88)

0.004

Table 2 shows the mean particle concentrations and the particle sizes of VLDL, LDL, and HDL across tertiles of n-3 and n-6 PUFA concentrations, relative to total fatty acids. No significant associations were observed between n-3 PUFAs and concentrations of lipoprotein particles. However, serum n-3 PUFAs was negatively associated with VLDL particle size (P = 0.021) and positively with HDL particle size (P = 0.011). There was a strong negative relationship between n-6 PUFAs and VLDL particle concentration whereas n-6 PUFAs did not associate with LDL and HDL particle concentrations. There was a negative linear trend for VLDL particle size and positive linear trend for LDL and HDL particle size across n-6 PUFA relative concentrations. Compared to n-3 PUFAs, the relationships between n-6 PUFAs and lipoprotein particle sizes were stronger (all P < 0.001).
Table 2

Baseline VLDL, LDL and HDL particle concentrations and sizes according to n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA tertiles

 

Tertiles of N-3 PUFAs

 
 

(Percentage of total fatty acid concentration)

 
 

I

II

III

 
 

<3.16%

3.16% to 3.87%

>3.87%

P for linearity*

VLDL, mean (SD)

    

Concentration, nmol/L

84.8 (26.7)

93.0 (30.4)

87.1 (30.4)

0.81

Mean size, nm

36.4 (1.31)

36.5 (1.39)

36.1 (1.21)

0.021

LDL, mean (SD)

    

Concentration, nmol/L

543 (119)

563 (122)

557 (121)

0.91

Mean size, nm

23.5 (0.17)

23.5 (0.18)

23.5 (0.15)

0.084

HDL, mean (SD)

    

Concentration, μmol/L

7.25 (0.79)

7.36 (0.82)

7.46 (0.79)

0.086

Mean size, nm

9.92 (0.23)

9.93 (0.24)

9.98 (0.24)

0.011

 

Tertiles of N-6 PUFAs

 
 

I

II

III

 
 

<32.7%

32.7% to 36.1%

>36.1%

P for linearity*

VLDL, mean (SD)

    

Concentration, nmol/L

110 (29.3)

82.5 (22.6)

72.3 (20.7)

<0.001

Mean size, nm

37.4 (1.32)

36.1 (0.99)

35.6 (0.81)

<0.001

LDL, mean (SD)

    

Concentration, nmol/L

589 (122)

537 (117)

537 (116)

0.15

Mean size, nm

23.5 (0.19)

23.6 (0.14)

23.6 (0.13)

<0.001

HDL, mean (SD)

    

Concentration, μmol/L

7.28 (0.84)

7.35 (0.82)

7.44 (0.75)

0.28

Mean size, nm

9.85 (0.20)

9.97 (0.23)

10.0 (0.25)

<0.001

*adjusted for age, sex, smoking, BMI and antihyperglycemic medication and lipid-lowering medication at baseline.

In general, VLDL particle concentration and size increased (P < 0.001) and HDL particle concentration decreased (P < 0.001) whereas no significant changes were found for LDL particle concentrations and for LDL and HDL particle sizes (Additional file 1: Figure S1). Mean change of triglycerides (men and women together) was -0.05 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.11 to 0.01 mmol/L). Table 3 shows the partial correlations of 6-year changes in serum n-3 and n-6 (in% of total fatty acids) with changes in VLDL, LDL, and HDL lipoprotein particle concentrations and mean particle sizes. The change in serum n-3 PUFAs during follow-up correlated positively with the change in LDL particle size (r = 0.13) and HDL particle size (r = 0.12) although the correlations were weak. Modest inverse correlation (r = -0.20) was found between the changes of n-3 PUFAs and VLDL particle size. The change of n-3 PUFAs was not associated with changes in VLDL, LDL and HDL particle concentrations during follow-up (P > 0.05 for all).
Table 3

Partial correlations between changes in n-3 and n-6 PUFAs (in % of total fatty acids) and changes in lipoprotein particle concentrations and mean sizes

 

Change of

 
 

n-3 PUFAs

n-6 PUFAs

 

r (95% CI)#

r (95% CI)#

Change of

  

VLDL particle concentration

-0.05 (-0.12 to 0.02)

-0.37 (-0.44 to -0.30)***

VLDL particle mean size

-0.20 (-0.28 to -0.12)***

-0.55 (-0.61 to -0.48)***

LDL particle concentration

-0.02 (-0.07 to 0.05)

0.00 (-0.06 to 0.06)

LDL particle mean size

0.13 (0.06 to 0.20)**

0.34 (0.26 to 0.42)***

HDL particle concentration

0.09 (0.00 to 0.18)

-0.08 (-0.16 to 0.02)

HDL particle mean size

0.12 (0.04 to 0.20)*

0.05 (-0.03 to 0.14)

#The 95% confidence intervals were obtained by bias-corrected bootstrapping (5,000 replications).

Sidak-adjusted probabilities. Adjusted for age, sex, smoking, BMI and antihyperglycemic medication and lipid-lowering medication at baseline.

*<0.05 **<0.01 ***<0.001.

The change in n-6 PUFAs correlated negatively with the change in VLDL particle concentration (r = -0.37) and VLDL particle size (r = -0.55); the correlation with change in LDL particle size was positive (r = 0.34). The change in n-6 PUFAs was not significantly correlated with the change in HDL particle concentration and size or with change in LDL particle concentration.

Discussion

The present population-based study comprising 665 middle-aged subjects showed that serum levels of both n-3 and n-6 PUFA, relative to total fatty acids, were associated with lipoprotein particle concentrations and sizes. Longitudinal changes in these fatty acid proportions paralleled various changes in lipoprotein particle numbers and sizes. This appears to be the first study showing longitudinal association between changes in serum PUFA levels and lipoprotein particle concentrations in a population consuming their habitual diet. The baseline results of the present study are in line with the previous cross-sectional study of 1098 men conducted by Choo et al. [9].

Previously, Motoyama et al. found in the population-based large study that n-6 and n-3 PUFAs were inversely related to serum triglycerides which are carried by VLDL [8]. VLDL lipoprotein has been found to associate with increased cardiovascular risk [15]. In line with the previous study by Choo et al. [9] higher n-6 PUFA concentration at baseline associated with smaller VLDL particle size and concentration in the present study. However there was not a clear association between n-3 PUFAs and VLDL particles at baseline. In addition, the strongest longitudinal correlations were found for the negative associations between n-6 PUFAs and VLDL particle concentration and size. Small low-density lipoprotein particles have been shown to be a cardiovascular risk factor predicting coronary artery disease and events [1618]. In the present study, there was not a difference in LDL particle sizes between n-3 tertiles at baseline and the difference between n-6 PUFA tertiles was only modest. However, the present findings suggest that the change of PUFA levels, especially n-6 PUFAs, associate positively with the change of LDL particle size. Increased circulating levels of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs may contribute to favorable non-HDL (LDL and VLDL) particle changes.

Serum PUFA concentrations showed an association with mean HDL particle size at baseline. In addition, the change of n-3 PUFAs correlated with the change in HDL particle size. The FinnTwin-study suggested that a higher consumption of n-3 PUFA was related to changes in HDL subspecies toward a larger mean particle size in men [1]. That association remained significant in analyses controlling for genetic and environmental influences and for confounding factors like BMI, smoking and physical activity. Here we were able to control for additional potential confounding factors which yielded consistent findings with the FinnTwin-study.

The serum concentrations of fatty acids are generally regarded as markers of dietary intake although adiposity and genetics may contribute [19]. We did not assess the macronutrient dietary intake from this population. In the population-based Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease (KIHD) study dietary intake of PUFAs correlated with serum PUFAs (r = 0.50) [20]. The KIHD study was performed in an area in close proximity of this study area and subjects in both KIHD and in this study share similar socio-demographic characteristics. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study provided consistent findings about the relationship between dietary intake and serum levels of PUFAs as quantified by NMR spectroscopy [21]. We assume that serum PUFA levels in the present study primarily reflect dietary intake of PUFAs. It is possible that most pronounced change in the dietary habits was the change in fat quality. In the lake area of this study population, the potential increased intake of n-3 PUFAs was most likely from the lean white fish [22]. However, these assumptions cannot be confirmed based on these data because we did not have the measurement of diet.

The observational nature of this study, with only two health checkups and missing dietary intake information may be taken as a limitation. However, the present study represents a general population with several years of follow-up and with measurements of the circulating lipoprotein particle profile as well as PUFAs conducted for all baseline and follow-up samples at the same time.

In conclusion, at the population level, the 6-year relative increases in serum levels of both n-3 and n-6 PUFAs are associated with concurrent favorable changes in the lipoprotein particle profile among men and women with a mean age of 46 years.

Abbreviations

CHD: 

Coronary heart disease

HDL: 

High density lipoprotein

n-3: 

Omega-3

n-6: 

Omega-6

NMR: 

Nuclear magnetic resonance

PUFA: 

Poly-unsaturated fatty acid

LDL: 

Low density lipoprotein

VLDL: 

Very low density lipoprotein.

Declarations

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Academy of Finland (PW, PS), the Sigrid Jusélius Foundation (MAK), the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology – TEKES (MAK), and the Strategic Research Funding from the University of Oulu (MAK).

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Eastern Finland
(2)
Primary Health Care Unit, Kuopio University Hospital
(3)
Finnish Medicines Agency Fimea
(4)
Unit of Primary Health Care, Helsinki University Central Hospital
(5)
Department of General Practice, University of Helsinki
(6)
Department of Medicine, Central Finland Central Hospital
(7)
Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, University of Helsinki
(8)
Computational Medicine, Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu
(9)
NMR Metabolomics Laboratory, School of Pharmacy, University of Eastern Finland
(10)
Computational Medicine, School of Social and Community Medicine and the Medical Research Council Integrative Epidemiology Unit, University of Bristol
(11)
Oulu University Hospital
(12)
Primary Health Care Unit, Central Finland Central Hospital

References

  1. Bogl LH, Maranghi M, Rissanen A, Kaprio J, Taskinen MR, Pietiläinen KH: Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake is related to a protective high-density lipoprotein subspecies profile independent of genetic effects: a monozygotic twin pair study. Atherosclerosis. 2011, 219: 880-886. 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2011.09.010View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bogl LH, Pietiläinen KH, Rissanen A, Kangas AJ, Soininen P, Rose RJ: Association between habitual dietary intake and lipoprotein subclass profile in healthy young adults. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2013, doi:10.1016/j.numecd.2012.11.007,Google Scholar
  3. Bosch J, Gerstein HC, Dagenais GR, Díaz R, Dyal L, Jung H, : n-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with dysglycemia. N Engl J Med. 2012, 367: 309-318.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Roncaglioni MC, Tombesi M, Avanzini F, Barlera S, Caimi V, Longoni P, : n-3 fatty acids in patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. N Engl J Med. 2013, 368: 1800-1808.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Superko HR, Superko SM, Nasir K, Agatston A, Garrett BC: Omega-3 fatty acid blood levels: clinical significance and controversy. Circulation. 2013, 128: 2154-2161. 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.002731View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Harris WS, Mozaffarian D, Rimm E, Kris-Etherton P, Rudel LL, Appel LJ: Omega-6 fatty acids and risk for cardiovascular disease: a science advisory from the American Heart Association Nutrition Subcommittee of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism; Council on Cardiovascular Nursing; and Council on Epidemiology and Prevention. Circulation. 2009, 119: 902-907. 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.191627View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Ramsden CE, Zamora D, Leelarthaepin B, Majchrzak-Hong SF, Faurot KR, Suchindran CM: Use of dietary linoleic acid for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and death: evaluation of recovered data from the Sydney Diet Heart Study and updated meta-analysis. BMJ. 2013, 346: e8707- 10.1136/bmj.e8707View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Motoyama KR, Curb JD, Kadowaki T, El-Saed A, Abbott RD, Okamura T: Association of serum n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with lipids in 3 populations of middle-aged men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009, 90: 49-55. 10.3945/ajcn.2008.26761PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Choo J, Ueshima H, Curb JD, Shin C, Evans RW, El-Saed A, : Serum n-6 fatty acids and lipoprotein subclasses in middle-aged men: the population-based cross-sectional ERA-JUMP study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010, 91: 1195-1203. 10.3945/ajcn.2009.28500PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Vanhala M, Saltevo J, Soininen P, Kautiainen H, Kangas AJ, Ala-Korpela M: Serum omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the metabolic syndrome: a longitudinal population-based cohort study. Am J Epidemiol. 2012, 176: 253-260. 10.1093/aje/kwr504View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Wang J, Stančáková A, Soininen P, Kangas AJ, Paananen J, Kuusisto J: Lipoprotein subclass profiles in individuals with varying degrees of glucose tolerance: a population-based study of 9399 Finnish men. J Intern Med. 2012, 272: 562-572. 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2012.02562.xView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Soininen P, Kangas AJ, Würtz P, Tukiainen T, Tynkkynen T, Laatikainen R: High-throughput serum NMR metabonomics for cost-effective holistic studies on systemic metabolism. Analyst. 2009, 134: 1781-1785. 10.1039/b910205aView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Inouye M, Kettunen J, Soininen P, Silander K, Ripatti S, Kumpula LS: Metabonomic, transcriptomic, and genomic variation of a population cohort. Mol Syst Biol. 2010, 6: 441-PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Ala-Korpela M: Critical evaluation of 1H NMR metabonomics of serum as a methodology for disease risk assessment and diagnostics. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2008, 46: 27-42.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Ren J, Grundy SM, Liu J, Wang W, Wang M, Sun J: Long-term coronary heart disease risk associated with very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in Chinese: the results of a 15-Year Chinese Multi-Provincial Cohort Study (CMCS). Atherosclerosis. 2010, 211: 327-32. 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2010.02.020View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Rizzo M, Berneis K: Low-density lipoprotein size and cardiovascular risk assessment. QJM. 2006, 99: 1-14.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Toft-Petersen AP, Tilsted HH, Aarøe J, Rasmussen K, Christensen T, Griffin BA: Small dense LDL particles - a predictor of coronary artery disease evaluated by invasive and CT-based techniques: a case-control study. Lipids Health Dis. 2011, 10: 21- 10.1186/1476-511X-10-21PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Otvos JD, Collins D, Freedman DS, Shalaurova I, Schaefer EJ, McNamara JR: Low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein particle subclasses predict coronary events and are favorably changed by gemfibrozil therapy in the veterans affairs high-density lipoprotein intervention trial. Circulation. 2006, 113: 1556e63-View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  19. Kettunen J, Tukiainen T, Sarin AP, Ortega-Alonso A, Tikkanen E, Lyytikäinen LP: Genome-wide association study identifies multiple loci influencing human serum metabolite levels. Nat Genet. 2012, 44: 269-276. 10.1038/ng.1073PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Laaksonen DE, Nyyssönen K, Niskanen L, Rissanen TH, Salonen JT: Prediction of cardiovascular mortality in middle-aged men by dietary and serum linoleic and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Arch Intern Med. 2005, 165: 193-199. 10.1001/archinte.165.2.193View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Skilton MR, Mikkilä V, Würtz P, Ala-Korpela M, Sim KA, Soininen P: Fetal growth, omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids, and progression of subclinical atherosclerosis: preventing fetal origins of disease? The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013, 97: 58-65. 10.3945/ajcn.112.044198View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Rissanen T, Voutilainen S, Nyyssönen K, Lakka TA, Salonen JT: Fish oil-derived fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid, and the risk of acute coronary events: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart disease risk factor study. Circulation. 2000, 102: 2677-2679. 10.1161/01.CIR.102.22.2677View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright

© Mäntyselkä et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Advertisement