Apoptosis in palmitate-exposed INS-1E cells (white bars), MIN6 cells (grey bars) and human islets (black bars) measured as DNA fragmentation (top panel) and cleaved caspase 3 (bottom panel). The cells and islets were cultured for 48 hours in the presence of 0.5 mM palmitate at indicated glucose (Glu) concentrations. AICAR (1 mM; Aic) and etomoxir (0.2 mM; Et) were added as indicated. INS-1E cells cultured at 11 mM glucose, MIN6 cells at 25 mM glucose and human islets at 5.5 mM glucose alone were considered as controls. Results are means ± SEM of 4-6 independent experiments. *P < 0.05 compared to low glucose and #p < 0.05 effect of additive.