Palmitate oxidation (A) and accumulation (B) in palmitate-exposed INS-1E cells (white bars), MIN6 cells (grey bars) and human islets (black bars). The cells and islets were cultured for 48 hours in the presence of 0.5 mM palmitate and 2 μCi [3H]palmitate per ml at indicated glucose (Glu) concentrations. AICAR (1 mM; Aic) and etomoxir (0.2 mM; Et) were added as indicated. After culture, media were collected, 3H2O separated and radioactivity determined by a liquid-scintillation spectrometer. To measure palmitate accumulation, radioactivity was determined in lysed cells and islets. Results are means ± SEM of 3-4 independent experiments. *P < 0.05 compared to low glucose and #p < 0.05 effect of additive.