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Table 1 A summary of the selected studies according to the year published, design, region, follow-up, sample's characteristics and assay methods used.

From: Olive oil intake is inversely related to cancer prevalence: a systematic review and a meta-analysis of 13800 patients and 23340 controls in 19 observational studies

Author Year
published
Design, region and follow-up duration Sample size; mean age and gender; histological evaluation Assay methods
Breast cancer
Trichopoulou A, et al [10] 1995 Case-control study conducted in Greece from 1989 to 1991 820 women with breast cancer and 1548 controls Olive oil intake more than once a day versus once a day. A semiquantitative questionnaire is used.
Katsouyanni K, et al [11] 1994 Hospital-based case-control study conducted in Greece from 1989 to 1991 820 patients with histological confirmed cancer of the breast were compared with 795 orthopaedic patient controls and 753 hospital visitor controls Diet was ascertained through a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire; quintiles of monounsaturated fat were measured.
Trichopoulou A, et al [12] 2010 Prospective study which evaluated the relation of conformity to the Mediterranean
diet with breast cancer risk in the context of the European Prospective
Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort in Greece
14,807 women were followed up for an average of 9.8 y and
identified 240 incident breast cancer cases
Diet was assessed
through a validated food-frequency questionnaire, and conformity
to the Mediterranean diet was evaluated through a score (range = 0-9 points) incorporating the characteristics of this diet. Among others, intake of olive oil and monounsaturated lipids were measured.
Martin-Moreno JM, et al [13] 1994 Population-based case-control study conducted in Spain 762 patients (18-75 years of age) and 988 female controls Quartiles of olive oil consumption.
Landa MC, et al [14] 1994 Case-control study conducted in north Spain from 1988 to 1991 100 women with breast cancer and 100 hospital controls Tertile of monounsaturated fat intake were measured.
García-Segovia P, et al [15] 2006 Case-control study conducted in Spain from 1999 to 2001 755 women: 291 incident cases with confirmed breast cancer and 464 controls randomly selected from the Canary Island Nutrition Survey A semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire was completed; intake of monounsaturated fat and olive oil were measured.
La Vecchia C, et al. [16] 1995 Multicenter case-control study conducted between 1991 and 1994 in Italy 2564 histological confirmed patients and 2588 controls (aged 34-70 years) Use of a validated food-frequency questionnaire; olive oil was measured.
Sieri S, et al [17] 2004 Prospective study conducted in northern Italy where women volunteers were recruited from 1987 to 1992 and were followed for 9.5 years 8,984 women were followed up for an average of 9.5 y, and identified 207 incident breast cancer cases A semiquantitative
food frequency questionnaire was used for the evaluation of four dietary patterns. Olive oil consumption was assessed in the salad vegetables pattern.
Bessaoud F, et al [18] 2008 Case-control study conducted in southern France (June 2002 to December 2004) 437 histological confirmed patients and 922 controls females, aged 25 to 85 years Olive oil intake was assessed through a validated food-frequency questionnaire.
Richardson S, et al [20] 1991 Hospital-based case-control study conducted in France 409 patients and 515 controls Tertile of consumption of monounsaturated fat intake was measured.
Colorectal cancer
Braga C, et al [25] 1998 Multicenter case-control study in six Italian areas from 1992 to 1996 1953 patients with histological confirmed colorectal carcinoma (1225 of the colon and 728 of the rectum) (median age 62 years, range 23-74). Controls were 4154 subjects with no history of cancer (median age 58 years, range 20-74). Tertiles of olive oil intake were measured. Olive oil intake was assessed through a food-frequency questionnaire including 78 foods, groups of foods or recipes.
Benito E, et al [29] 1991 Multicenter case-control study of colorectal cancer conducted in Spain from 1984 to 1988 286 colorectal cancer cases, 295 population controls and 203 hospital controls Different monounsaturated fat intakes were measured. Food composition tables and ad-hoc estimates of portion sizes were used to derive intake estimates of 29 nutrients and of total calories.
Galeone C, et al [30] 2007 Multicenter case-control study of colorectal cancer conducted in Italy and Switzerland from 1992 to 2000 1394
cases of colon cancer (median 62 years), 886 cases of rectal cancer (median 63 years) and 4765 controls (median 58 years)
Use of fried olive oil was measured.
Prostate cancer
Tzonou A, et al [34] 1999 Case-control study conducted from 1994 to 1997 in Greece 320 patients with histological confirmed prostate cancer and 246 controls (aged 71 years and 70 years, respectively) Olive oil and other fat were measured. The food-frequency questionnaire comprised around 120 food items or beverages categories.
Norrish AE, et al [35] 2000 Population-based case-control study conducted in New Zealand from 1996 to 1997 317 prostate cancer cases and 480 controls from 40 to 80 years old Quantiles of monounsaturated fat-rich vegetable oil consumption were measured.
Hodge A, et al [36] 2004 Population-based case-control study, where eligible cases were diagnosed between 1994 and 1997 in Australia 858 men aged < 70 years with histological confirmed cancer and 905 age-frequency-matched men, selected at random from the electoral rolls Various olive oil intakes were measured. Food-frequency questionnaire had 121-items.
Cancer of the larynx
Gallus S, et al [40] 2003 Combined dataset from two case-control studies conducted from 1986 to 2000 in northern Italy and Switzerland 68 women under age 79 years, with incident, histological confirmed cancer of the larynx (median age 60 years). Controls were 340 women, admitted to the same network of hospitals (median age 60 years) Intake of olive oil was measured. Validated food-frequency questionnaire based on 78 foods or groups of foods was applied.
Crosignani P, et al [41] 1996 Prospective study to evaluate survival for laryngeal cancer cases interviewed 10 years ago in a population-based case-control study 213 incident cases of laryngeal cancer Olive oil and other fat were measured through a food frequency questionnaire.
Bosetti C, et al [43] 2002 Case-control study conducted in Nothern Italy and the Swiss Canton of Vaud from 1992 to 2000 527 histological confirmed cases and 1297 frequency-matched controls Dietary intakes 2 years prior to cancer diagnosis were estimated through a food-frequency questionnaire including 78 foods and beverages. Olive oil consumption was measured.
Cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx
Lagiou P, et al [44] 2009 Multicenter case-control study in 14 centers in 10 countries, 2002 to 2005 in all centers but Paris (1987 to 1992) 1861 men and 443 women histological confirmed cancer patients and 1661 men and 566 women controls that were frequency-matched to patients by sex, and
5-year groups.
Olive oil consumption was recorded through a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, specifically developed for ARCAGE. Olive oil was not recorded in the Paris center.
Franceschi S et al [46] 1999 Multicenter case-control in Italy carried out in 1992 to 1997 512 men and 86 women oral cavity and pharynx cancer cases (median age 58, range 22-77) and 1008 men and 483 women controls (median age 57, range 20-78) Food-frequency questionnaire included 78 foods, food groups or recipes, including olive oil intake.
Nešić V, et al [47] 2010 Case-control study conducted
in Belgrade of Serbia, during the period 2001-2003
45 cases with histopathological
diagnosis of UCNT and 90 controls that were matched by sex, age (± 3 years),
and place of residence (city-village)
Dietary data were
collected using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) included 100 food items. Olive oil consumption was measured.
Petridou E, et al [48] 2002 Hospital-based case-control study in Greece 106 patients and 106 control subjects. Different intakes of added lipids (olive oil is a substantial fraction) were measured. Dietary intake was assessed through a validated, semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire.
Cancer of the oesophagus
Tzonou A, et al [50] 1996 Hospital-based case-control study conducted in Greece from 1989 to 1991 99 patients (43 patients with incident esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma and 56 patients with incident esophageal adenocarcinoma) and 200 controls The frequency of intake of monounsaturated fats was measured. Diet was assessed through a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire.
Bosetti C, et al [51] 2000 Multicenter case-control study in 3 areas of northern Italy from 1992 to 1997 304 patients (275 men, 29 women) (median age 60, range 39-77) and 743 controls (593 men, 150 women) (median age 60, range 36-77) Olive oil intake was measured through a food-frequency questionnaire that included 78 specific foods and beverages.
Launoy G, et al [53] 1998 Multicenter case-control study conducted between 1991 and 1994 in France 208 histological confirmed patients and 399 controls, all males Different types of olive oil intake were measured through a standardized detailed food questionnaire about the previous year's diet.
Stomach cancer
Palli D, et al [54] 2001 Population-based case-control study in Italy conducted between 1985-1987 126 patients with MSI status (MSI + = 43, MSI- = 83) and 561 controls Tertiles of olive oil consumption and other lipids were measured.
Lung cancer
Fortes C, et al [56] 2003 Hospital-based case-control study conducted in Italy from1993 to 1996 Cases were 342 patients with newly diagnosed primary lung cancer and controls were 292 adults (all aged more than 35 years) Olive oil intake was measured.
Ovarian cancer
Tzonou A, et al [60] 1993 Hospital-based case-control study conducted in Greece from 1989 to 1991 189 patients and 200 controls under 75 years of age Monounsaturated fat and other lipids were measured.
Bosetti C, et al [61] 2002 Multicenter case-control study, conducted from January 1992 to September 1999 1031 histological confirmed patients (median age 56, age range 18-79 years) and 2411 hospital controls (median age 57, age range 17-79 years). Seasonal lipid consumption, such as olive oil and other fats were measured. The specific food-frequency questionnaire included 78 specific foods and beverages.
Endometrial cancer
Levi F, et al [65] 1993 Case-control study conducted in Switzerland and northern Italy 274 histological confirmed patients and 572 controls Olive oil intake was measured. Diet was assessed using a questionnaire which considered 50 indicator foods, including the major sources of energy.
Tzonou A, et al [66] 1996 Hospital-based case-control study undertaken in Greece from 1992 to 1994 145 histological confirmed patients and 298 controls Intake of monounsaturated fat, mostly olive oil was measured.
Petridou E, et al [67] 2002 Hospital-based case-control study undertaken in Greece 84 histological confirmed patients and 84 controls with intact uterus Olive oil was measured.
Pancreatic cancer
Kalapothaki V, et al [68] 1993 Hospital-based case-control study conducted in Athens from 1991 to 1992 181 cases and 181 hospital-181 hospital visitor controls Monounsaturated fat was measured. Food-frequency questionnaire was assessing the consumption of 110 food items or beverages over the period of one year before the onset of the disease.
Soler M, et al [69] 1998 Case-control study conducted in Italy between 1983 and 1985 362 patients with histological confirmed cancers of the pancreas and 1552 controls Tertiles of olive oil intake were measured.
La Vecchia and Negri [70] 1997 Case-control study conducted in Italy between 1983 and 1985 362 patients with histological confirmed cancers of the pancreas and 1502 controls Tertiles of olive oil intake were measured.
Bladder cancer
Brinkman MT et al [74] 2011 Case-control study conducted in Belgium 200 cases and 386 controls Tertiles of olive oil intake were measured.
Riboli E et al [75] 1991 Multi-centre case-control study conducted in Spain 432 male cases and 792 age matched controls Monounsaturated fat intake was measured. Usual dietary habits were investigated by means of an interview-based dietary history questionnaire.