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Table 2 Fatty acid distribution in plasma lipids (PL) at baseline and after a 12 wk intake of the capsulesa,b

From: Incorporation of n-3 PUFA and γ-linolenic acid in blood lipids and red blood cell lipids together with their influence on disease activity in patients with chronic inflammatory arthritis - a randomized controlled human intervention trial

PL (% FAME) wks n-3 LC-PUFA
(group 1)
GLA
(group 2)
n-3 LC-PUFA + GLA
(group 3)
Control (olive oil)
(group 4)
C16:0 0 22.0 ± 1.71 22.2 ± 1.43 22.6 ± 2.08 21.9 ± 1.65
  12 22.2 ± 1.64 22.9 ± 1.65* 22.9 ± 2.30 22.8 ± 2.21
C16:1 0 2.42 ± 0.82 2.02 ± 0.25 2.30 ± 0.77 2.29 ± 0.65
  12 2.35 ± 0.71 1.99 ± 0.33 2.08 ± 0.72 2.25 ± 0.59
C18:0 0 6.51 ± 0.60 6.38 ± 0.25 6.78 ± 0.78 6.48 ± 0.76
  12 6.62 ± 0.86 6.45 ± 0.55 7.19 ± 0.79 6.60 ± 0.59
C18:1 n9 0 20.1 ± 1.68 19.5 ± 1.87 19.1 ± 2.33 18.8 ± 2.60
  12 18.1 ± 2.20** 18.2 ± 1.61 18.7 ± 1.94 19.4 ± 1.57
C18:2 n-6 0 28.2 ± 3.23 28.7 ± 3.08 26.7 ± 4.56 29.5 ± 3.93
(LA) 12 26.6 ± 3.69 26.3 ± 2.41** 25.9 ± 3.51 29.4 ± 3.54
C18:3 n-6 0 0.36 ± 0.11 0.52 ± 0.43 0.44 ± 0.28 0.33 ± 0.13
(GLA) 12 0.39 ± 0.32 1.26 ± 0.20** 0.72 ± 0.28** 0.29 ± 0.09
C18:3 n-3 0 0.65 ± 0.44 0.81 ± 0.37 0.48 ± 0.18 0.59 ± 0.34
(ALA) 12 0.42 ± 0.15 0.43 ± 0.16* 0.45 ± 0.17 0.56 ± 0.25
C20:3 n-6 0 0.25 ± 0.25 0.16 ± 0.10 0.27 ± 0.29 0.23 ± 0.31
(DGLA) 12 0.56 ± 0.98 0.88 ± 1.51 0.36 ± 0.39 0.41 ± 0.44
C20:4 n-6 0 5.18 ± 1.21 5.83 ± 1.51 6.06 ± 1.67 4.94 ± 1.14
(AA) 12 5.35 ± 1.22 7.45 ± 1.63* 6.15 ± 1.63 4.96 ± 1.25
C20:5 n-3 0 1.16 ± 0.86 1.05 ± 0.50 1.56 ± 1.35 1.02 ± 0.85
(EPA) 12 2.91 ± 1.59*** 0.73 ± 0.49* 1.78 ± 1.48 0.71 ± 0.41
C22:5 n-3 0 0.39 ± 0.10 0.41 ± 0.10 0.43 ± 0.11 0.38 ± 0.09
(DPA) 12 0.57 ± 0.14*** 0.36 ± 0.11** 0.47 ± 0.18 0.31 ± 0.09*
C22:6 n-3 0 1.59 ± 0.56 1.50 ± 0.68 2.06 ± 0.91 1.64 ± 0.68
(DHA) 12 2.25 ± 0.69** 1.43 ± 0.72 1.92 ± 0.93 1.39 ± 0.63
AA/EPA 0 6.49 ± 3.71 8.24 ± 8.02 8.06 ± 8.31 7.76 ± 5.28
  12 2.72 ± 2.12*** 17.6 ± 19.36 7.32 ± 6.55 9.23 ± 5.91
n-3 LC-PUFA 0 3.14 ± 1.37 2.95 ± 1.14 4.04 ± 2.24 3.04 ± 1.58
  12 5.73 ± 2.35*** 2.52 ± 1.15* 4.17 ± 2.46 2.42 ± 1.07*
n-3 PUFA 0 3.82 ± 1.35 3.80 ± 1.05 4.55 ± 2.35 3.67 ± 1.89
  12 6.17 ± 2.41** 2.97 ± 1.36** 4.64 ± 2.57 2.99 ± 1.25
n-6 PUFA 0 34.9 ± 2.97 36.6 ± 1.74 34.5 ± 4.02 36.0 ± 3.93
  12 33.5 ± 3.74 37.6 ± 2.21* 34.6 ± 2.88 35.9 ± 3.62
n-6/n-3 0 10.5 ± 4.51 10.4 ± 3.57 9.70 ± 4.97 11.6 ± 4.61
  12 6.39 ± 2.97** 15.1 ± 6.72* 10.7 ± 7.65 13.7 ± 4.99*
SFA 0 32.4 ± 1.67 32.1 ± 0.91 33.1 ± 2.32 32.7 ± 2.62
  12 33.3 ± 2.12 33.1 ± 1.39* 33.7 ± 2.31 33.4 ± 3.22
MUFA 0 25.6 ± 2.16 24.5 ± 1.92 24.5 ± 2.95 24.2 ± 3.05
  12 23.5 ± 2.56** 23.1 ± 1.63* 23.8 ± 2.25 24.6 ± 1.86
PUFA 0 39.2 ± 3.62 40.8 ± 2.11 39.5 ± 4.54 40.1 ± 4.41
  12 40.2 ± 3.51 41.1 ± 2.58 39.6 ± 3.29 39.3 ± 3.92
CLA 0 0.34 ± 0.08 0.34 ± 0.08 0.31 ± 0.06 0.34 ± 0.08
  12 0.42 ± 0.28 0.35 ± 0.19 0.27 ± 0.05 0.30 ± 0.08
  1. a Fatty acids were separated gas chromatographically as corresponding fatty acid methyl esters (FAME).
  2. b Data are expressed as mean ± SD of % total FAME.
  3. * Significantly different compared to the start value (p ≤ 0.05); ** (p ≤ 0.01); *** (p ≤ 0.001).
  4. LA linoleic acid, GLA γ-linolenic acid, ALA α-linolenic acid, DGLA dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, AA arachidonic acid, EPA eicosapentaenoic acid, DPA docosapentaenoic acid, DHA docosahexaenoic acid, SFA saturated fatty acids, MUFA monounsaturated fatty acids, PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acids, CLA conjugated fatty acids.