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Table 3 Fatty acid distribution in cholesteryl esters (CE) at baseline and after a 12 wk intake of the cap-sulesa,b

From: Incorporation of n-3 PUFA and γ-linolenic acid in blood lipids and red blood cell lipids together with their influence on disease activity in patients with chronic inflammatory arthritis - a randomized controlled human intervention trial

CE (% FAME) wks n-3 LC-PUFA
(group 1)
GLA
(group 2)
n-3 LC-PUFA + GLA
(group 3)
Control
(olive oil)
(group 4)
C16:0 0 11.2 ± 2.57 10.9 ± 1.22 11.1 ± 1.38 10.7 ± 1.26
  12 11.3 ± 2.83 11.6 ± 0.99 12.7 ± 2.01** 10.3 ± 1.90
C16:1 0 3.21 ± 1.69 3.55 ± 2.66 3.06 ± 1.58 3.09 ± 1.21
  12 3.48 ± 1.52 3.56 ± 2.47 2.92 ± 1.16 3.09 ± 1.25
C18:0 0 0.80 ± 0.46 0.75 ± 0.35 1.05 ± 1.54 0.70 ± 0.18
  12 0.64 ± 0.15 0.57 ± 0.15 0.70 ± 0.15 0.86 ± 0.89
C18:1 n9 0 19.0 ± 2.65 19.1 ± 2.84 18.4 ± 2.28 18.5 ± 3.22
  12 18.9 ± 2.53 18.4 ± 1.99 19.0 ± 2.12 18.3 ± 2.38
C18:2 n-6 0 50.9 ± 6.28 50.0 ± 6.56 49.7 ± 6.51 52.0 ± 4.80
(LA) 12 49.9 ± 5.39 47.6 ± 5.12* 49.5 ± 5.13 54.1 ± 4.41
C18:3 n-6 0 0.71 ± 0.26 0.58 ± 0.26 0.71 ± 0.49 0.59 ± 0.27
(GLA) 12 0.51 ± 0.25** 2.66 ± 0.60*** 1.26 ± 0.51* 0.55 ± 0.25
C18:3 n-3 0 0.69 ± 0.44 0.70 ± 0.38 0.43 ± 0.16 0.57 ± 0.26
(ALA) 12 0.37 ± 0.13* 0.46 ± 0.18 0.39 ± 0.13 0.53 ± 0.17
C20:3 n-6 0 0.55 ± 0.13 0.54 ± 0.13 0.55 ± 0.21 0.54 ± 0.12
(DGLA) 12 0.49 ± 0.15 1.22 ± 0.31*** 0.82 ± 0.15** 0.54 ± 0.08
C20:4 n-6 0 4.35 ± 1.34 4.36 ± 3.29 5.09 ± 2.36 3.77 ± 1.11
(AA) 12 4.24 ± 1.57 5.95 ± 1.98* 4.56 ± 1.86 3.92 ± 1.09
C20:5 n-3 0 0.63 ± 0.44 0.56 ± 0.55 0.98 ± 0.90 0.86 ± 1.03
(EPA) 12 1.95 ± 1.96* 0.45 ± 0.35 0.94 ± 0.85 0.51 ± 0.42
C22:5 n-3 0 0.02 ± 0.01 0.02 ± 0.01 0.02 ± 0.02 0.02 ± 0.01
(DPA) 12 0.03 ± 0.01 0.02 ± 0.01 0.02 ± 0.01 0.02 ± 0.01
C22:6 n-3 0 0.29 ± 0.17 0.24 ± 0.16 0.36 ± 0.19 0.30 ± 0.21
(DHA) 12 0.36 ± 0.25 0.23 ± 0.16 0.25 ± 0.15 0.27 ± 0.23
AA/EPA 0 9.61 ± 5.57 45.8 ± 90.9 22.7 ± 43.7 10.5 ± 9.13
  12 9.13 ± 16.0 23.1 ± 20.2 19.1 ± 36.1 13.4 ± 11.3
n-3 LC-PUFA 0 0.94 ± 0.59 0.83 ± 0.67 1.37 ± 1.09 1.18 ± 1.23
  12 2.34 ± 2.20* 0.70 ± 0.49 1.21 ± 0.98 0.79 ± 0.65
n-3 PUFA 0 1.65 ± 0.71 1.54 ± 0.89 1.81 ± 1.22 1.77 ± 1.43
  12 2.73 ± 2.31 1.17 ± 0.65 1.62 ± 1.06 1.33 ± 0.76
n-6 PUFA 0 56.7 ± 6.02 55.7 ± 7.55 56.1 ± 4.55 57.0 ± 4.87
  12 55.3 ± 5.38 57.5 ± 5.78 56.3 ± 4.70 59.2 ± 4.19
n-6/n-3 0 41.2 ± 18.4 49.2 ± 34.2 57.0 ± 67.2 50.7 ± 36.4
  12 45.9 ± 54.9 62.0 ± 30.0 65.2 ± 78.0 56.9 ± 29.1
SFA 0 14.3 ± 3.30 14.2 ± 1.65 14.8 ± 2.88 14.2 ± 2.38
  12 13.4 ± 4.51 14.4 ± 1.23 15.5 ± 2.49 13.4 ± 2.56
MUFA 0 24.1 ± 4.12 24.6 ± 5.34 23.4 ± 3.60 23.7 ± 4.07
  12 24.4 ± 3.92 23.8 ± 4.56 24.0 ± 2.90 23.3 ± 3.37
PUFA 0 58.5 ± 6.34 57.5 ± 7.88 58.2 ± 4.68 59.0 ± 5.55
  12 58.2 ± 4.84 58.8 ± 6.01 58.1 ± 4.46 60.7 ± 4.37
CLA 0 0.19 ± 0.11 0.23 ± 0.13 0.19 ± 0.06 0.22 ± 0.09
  12 0.20 ± 0.11 0.14 ± 0.05 0.17 ± 0.07 0.18 ± 0.07
  1. a Fatty acids were separated gas chromatographically as corresponding fatty acid methyl esters (FAME).
  2. b Data are expressed as mean ± SD of % total FAME.
  3. * Significantly different compared to the start value (p ≤ 0.05); ** (p ≤ 0.01); *** (p ≤ 0.001).
  4. LA linoleic acid, GLA γ-linolenic acid, ALA α-linolenic acid, DGLA dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, AA arachidonic acid, EPA eicosapentaenoic acid, DPA docosapentaenoic acid, DHA docosahexaenoic acid, SFA saturated fatty acids, MUFA monounsaturated fatty acids, PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acids, CLA conjugated fatty acids.