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Table 4 Fatty acid distribution in erythrocyte membranes (EM) at baseline and after a 12 wk intake of the capsulesa,b

From: Incorporation of n-3 PUFA and γ-linolenic acid in blood lipids and red blood cell lipids together with their influence on disease activity in patients with chronic inflammatory arthritis - a randomized controlled human intervention trial

EM (% FAME) wks n-3 LC-PUFA
(group 1)
GLA
(group 2)
n-3 LC-PUFA + GLA
(group 3)
Control (olive oil)
(group 4)
C16:0 0 21.5 ± 2.42 19.9 ± 6.94 24.5 ± 6.69 21.9 ± 1.63
  12 22.8 ± 1.45* 22.7 ± 2.44 21.6 ± 3.26 21.9 ± 2.46
C16:1 0 0.30 ± 0.05 0.30 ± 0.08 0.35 ± 0.16 0.36 ± 0.18
  12 0.31 ± 0.11 0.39 ± 0.18 0.44 ± 0.44 0.39 ± 0.19
C18:0 0 15.3 ± 0.92 15.4 ± 1.14 15.1 ± 1.74 15.7 ± 1.23
  12 15.3 ± 1.75 14.6 ± 2.42 14.7 ± 2.56 15.4 ± 1.11
C18:1 n9 0 14.6 ± 1.78 14.5 ± 1.41 14.1 ± 1.55 13.9 ± 1.36
  12 13.5 ± 0.99* 13.1 ± 1.20 13.3 ± 1.92 13.9 ± 1.41
C18:2 n-6 0 7.77 ± 0.79 8.09 ± 0.83 7.14 ± 1.66 8.13 ± 1.23
(LA) 12 7.18 ± 0.98* 7.73 ± 1.39 7.27 ± 1.55 8.14 ± 0.88
C18:3 n-6 0 0.06 ± 0.02 0.05 ± 0.01 0.04 ± 0.02 0.05 ± 0.01
(GLA) 12 0.04 ± 0.02*** 0.15 ± 0.05*** 0.07 ± 0.03* 0.04 ± 0.01
C18:3 n-3 0 0.13 ± 0.07 0.15 ± 0.05 0.12 ± 0.07 0.12 ± 0.05
(ALA) 12 0.08 ± 0.03** 0.09 ± 0.03* 0.10 ± 0.06 0.10 ± 0.03
C20:3 n-6 0 1.21 ± 0.28 1.23 ± 0.16 0.99 ± 0.29 1.24 ± 0.18
(DGLA) 12 0.95 ± 0.20*** 2.12 ± 0.51*** 1.37 ± 0.30** 1.25 ± 0.16
C20:4 n-6 0 12.96 ± 2.44 12.6 ± 1.80 11.27 ± 3.82 12.3 ± 1.73
(AA) 12 11.08 ± 2.03*** 12.0 ± 1.91 10.40 ± 3.26 11.6 ± 2.39
C20:5 n-3 0 0.59 ± 0.24 0.71 ± 0.44 0.62 ± 0.35 0.68 ± 0.36
(EPA) 12 2.00 ± 0.87*** 0.53 ± 0.34 1.09 ± 0.69* 0.55 ± 0.33
C22:5 n-3 0 1.46 ± 0.26 1.54 ± 0.32 1.23 ± 0.51 1.45 ± 0.33
(DPA) 12 2.17 ± 0.43*** 1.38 ± 0.54 1.56 ± 0.59 1.36 ± 0.41
C22:6 n-3 0 2.51 ± 0.61 2.68 ± 1.12 2.51 ± 1.22 2.65 ± 0.78
(DHA) 12 3.47 ± 0.89** 2.70 ± 1.48 2.65 ± 1.16 2.47 ± 0.94
AA/EPA 0 25.1 ± 10.1 28.4 ± 25.6 35.6 ± 49.0 24.2 ± 14.5
  12 7.17 ± 4.66*** 43.8 ± 48.4 16.0 ± 15.3 27.4 ± 13.7
n-3 LC-PUFA 0 4.56 ± 0.94 4.93 ± 1.73 4.36 ± 1.97 4.77 ± 1.28
  12 7.64 ± 2.01*** 4.61 ± 2.26 5.29 ± 2.17 4.38 ± 1.60
n-3 index 0 3.10 ± 0.82 3.39 ± 1.48 3.13 ± 1.48 3.32 ± 1.02
  12 5.47 ± 1.66*** 3.23 ± 1.81 3.73 ± 1.63 3.02 ± 1.23
n-3 PUFA 0 4.77 ± 0.93 5.17 ± 1.61 4.56 ± 1.88 4.91 ± 1.30
  12 7.76 ± 1.99*** 4.73 ± 2.26 5.43 ± 2.17 4.52 ± 1.56
n-6 PUFA 0 22.2 ± 2.22 22.1 ± 1.71 19.6 ± 5.54 21.9 ± 2.32
  12 19.3 ± 2.19*** 22.1 ± 2.20 19.3 ± 4.13 21.2 ± 2.65
n-6/n-3 0 4.79 ± 0.90 4.69 ± 1.61 4.95 ± 2.34 4.74 ± 1.34
  12 2.70 ± 0.96*** 6.29 ± 4.16 4.18 ± 1.95 5.16 ± 1.56
SFA 0 40.5 ± 3.04 39.1 ± 7.63 45.1 ± 9.16 41.4 ± 2.97
  12 42.3 ± 2.97* 42.2 ± 6.13 41.5 ± 5.21 42.3 ± 5.63
MUFA 0 20.8 ± 1.98 20.9 ± 1.24 20.6 ± 1.14 20.9 ± 1.30
  12 20.3 ± 0.67 19.8 ± 1.02* 20.2 ± 1.67 20.9 ± 1.34
PUFA 0 28.2 ± 2.63 28.4 ± 2.38 25.4 ± 7.10 28.0 ± 2.59
  12 28.3 ± 2.05 28.0 ± 4.07 26.0 ± 5.42 26.8 ± 3.58
CLA 0 0.86 ± 0.37 0.71 ± 0.24 0.78 ± 0.28 0.73 ± 0.23
  12 0.71 ± 0.21 0.62 ± 0.16 0.72 ± 0.26 0.71 ± 0.17
  1. a Fatty acids were separated gas chromatographically as corresponding fatty acid methyl esters (FAME).
  2. b Data are expressed as mean ± SD of % total FAME.
  3. * Significantly different compared to the start value (p ≤ 0.05); ** (p ≤ 0.01); *** (p ≤ 0.001).
  4. LA linoleic acid, GLA γ-linolenic acid, ALA α-linolenic acid, DGLA dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, AA arachidonic acid, EPA eicosapentaenoic acid, DPA docosapentaenoic acid, DHA docosahexaenoic acid, SFA saturated fatty acids, MUFA monounsaturated fatty acids, PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acids, CLA conjugated fatty acids.