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Table 5 Dietary intake at baseline and after 12 wks dietary interventiona

From: Incorporation of n-3 PUFA and γ-linolenic acid in blood lipids and red blood cell lipids together with their influence on disease activity in patients with chronic inflammatory arthritis - a randomized controlled human intervention trial

Nutrients
(51 ≤ 65 y)
D-A-C-H wks n-3 LC-PUFA
(group 1)
GLA
(group 2)
n-3 LC-PUFA + GLA
(group 3)
Control (olive oil)
(group 4)
Energy 8500 (f) 0 7823 ± 2064 8893 ± 2821 9021 ± 3165 8317 ± 2038
(KJ) 10500 (m) 12 7246 ± 1644 7724 ± 3130 7937 ± 2645 7506 ± 2569
Carbohydrates 225 (f) 0 217.6 ± 80.5 256.5 ± 80.6 251 ± 80.1 182.9 ± 82.2
g/d 288 (m) 12 178.3 ± 52.5 206.5 ± 102.8* 205 ± 49.3 206.9 ± 74.0
Protein 46 (f) 0 78.5 ± 23.1 79.4 ± 25.0 92.1 ± 28.3 119.4 ± 88.7
g/d 58 (m) 12 100.1 ± 93.4 75.9 ± 31.1 83.1 ± 46.5 69.5 ± 23.0
Fat 60 (f) 0 68.0 ± 19.4 76.4 ± 42.8 77.5 ± 37.3 78.3 ± 28.5
g/d 77 (m) 12 63.7 ± 21.7 67.7 ± 36.2 71.5 ± 31.1 68.6 ± 28.9
Dietary fiber 25 0 27.2 ± 8.86 28.5 ± 9.90 35.1 ± 13.1 19.9 ± 6.70
g/d   12 23.2 ± 9.14 23.6 ± 15.9 27 ± 8.63* 23.6 ± 11.3
Alcohol   0 6.42 ± 10.2 8.96 ± 11.0 7.7 ± 6.67 7.85 ± 8.50
g/d   12 4.28 ± 3.50 11.5 ± 13.9 10.5 ± 12.7 6.49 ± 5.61
SFA < 20 0 25.0 ± 8.51 27.1 ± 13.3 26.1 ± 14.1 26.3 ± 10.2
g/d < 26 12 25.0 ± 11.0 26.0 ± 13.1 23.4 ± 8.94 24.8 ± 7.98
MUFA < 20 0 24.0 ± 7.96 25.2 ± 16.8 27.4 ± 14.8 28.1 ± 11.5
g/d < 26 12 21.5 ± 7.67 25.0 ± 13.7 26.8 ± 11.4 24.4 ± 12.5
PUFA 14 - 20 0 11.2 ± 3.63 12.8 ± 6.30 13.1 ± 6.03 11.8 ± 5.54
g/d 18 - 26 12 10.4 ± 5.61 10.7 ± 7.51 12 ± 5.14 11.1 ± 7.67
Ca 1000 0 999 ± 328 896 ± 401 999 ± 359 879 ± 380
mg/d   12 1028 ± 269 888 ± 399 841 ± 382 1008 ± 417
Intake of fish an fish products
no intake
(%)
   23 25 15 30
1 - 2 portions/wk (%)    36 42 35 40
> 2 portions/wk (%)    41 33 50 30
Intake of n-3 LC-PUFA    0.57 ± 0.75 0.37 ± 0.41 0.64 ± 1.00 0.26 ± 0.36
  1. a Data are expressed as mean ± SD.
  2. * Significantly different compared to the start value (p ≤ 0.05).
  3. SFA saturated fatty acids, MUFA monounsaturated fatty acids, PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acids.