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Table 1 Enzymes of the mevalonate pathway and their mutant or RNAi phenotypes in C. elegans.

From: The mevalonate pathway in C. elegans

No Human Enzyme Name (ID) BLAST p value C. elegans ORF C. elegans gene Phenotype Ref.
1 Acetyl-CoA transferase 1 (ACAT1) 1e-115 T02G5.8 kat-1 Embryonic lethal (RNAi); Excess fat and premature aging (mutants) [31, 33, 45, 46]
2 HMG-CoA synthase
(HMGCS1)
2e-88 F25B4.6   Embryonic lethal (RNAi) [31, 33, 47]
3 HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR) 1e-111 F08F8.2   Embryonic lethal (RNAi); embryonic lethality, unfolded protein response activation, mislocalized prenylation reporter (statin treatment) [7, 3133]
4 Mevalonate kinase (MVK) 3e-51 Y42G9A.4 mvk-1 Embryonic lethal (RNAi) [31, 32]
5 Phosphomevalonate kinase (PMVK) 5e-33 F32D8.13   Embryonic lethal (RNAi) [32, 33]
6 Mevalonate (diphospho) decarboxylase (MVD) 2e-61 Y48B6A.13   Embryonic lethal (RNAi) [48]
7 Isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (IDI1) 7e-32 K06H7.9 idi-1 Embryonic lethal (RNAi); larval paralysis and lethality, defect in engulfment of apoptotic corpses (mutant) [8, 33]
8 Farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FDPS) 4e-52 R06C1.2 fdps-1 Embryonic lethal (RNAi) [33]
9 tRNA isopentenyldiphosphate transferase (TRIT1) 9e-49 ZC395.6 gro-1 Maternal sterility (RNAi); deregulated developmental, behavioral, and reproductive rates, as well as increased life span (mutant) [11, 33]
10 prenyl (decaprenyl) diphosphate synthase, subunit 1 (PDSS1 or COQ1) 2e-72 C24A11.9 coq-1 Slow growth, uncoordinated, extended life span (RNAi); larval development arrest, slowed pharyngeal pumping, eventual paralysis and cell death (mutant) [18, 19, 32]
11 4-hydroxybenzoate polyprenyltransferase (COQ2) 2e-83 F57B9.4 coq-2 Extended life span (RNAi); larval development arrest, slowed pharyngeal pumping, eventual paralysis and cell death (mutant) [18, 19]
12 Dehydrodolichyl diphosphate synthase (DHDDS) 7e-55 T01G1.4   No data  
13 Polyprenol reductase or steroid 5 alpha-reductase 3 (SRD5A3) 6e-14 B0024.13   No RNAi phenotype [31, 33]
14 Farnesyltransferase, CAAX box, subunit alpha (FNTA) 1e-55 R02D3.5 fnta-1 Protruding vulva, egg-laying abnormal (RNAi) [31, 32]
15 Farnesyltransferase, subunit beta (FNTB) 3e-90 F23B12.6 fntb-1 No phenotype (RNAi) [31, 33]
16 All-trans-GGPP synthase or geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase 1e-6/5e-05 C24A11.9/R06C1.2 coq-1 and fdps-1 are the closest homologs See coq-1 and fdps-1  
17 Protein geranylgeranyl transferase type-1 subunit beta (PGGT1B) 3e-73 Y48E1B.3   Larval lethal, larval arrest, postembryonic development abnormal (RNAi) [31, 33]
18 Rab geranylgeranyltransferase type 2 subunit alpha (RABGGTA) 5e-55 M57.2   Larval lethal, larval arrest, slow growth and induction of unfolding protein response (UPR)(RNAi) [7, 31, 32]
19 Rab geranylgeranyltransferase type 2 subunit beta (RABGGTB) 1e-110 B0280.1 ggtb-1 Abnormal early embryo, developmental delay (RNAi) [33]
20 Farnesyl-diphosphate farnesyltransferase 1 (FDFT1) none none   N/A N/A