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Table 4 Association of CAD risk factors with MS (n = 129)

From: Metabolic syndrome in South Asian immigrants: more than low HDL requiring aggressive management

   MS P-Value**
Variable No Yes  
Age (years) < 40 9 (8.0)+ 6 (5.3) 0.128
  ≥ 40 76 (67.3) 22 (19.5)  
Gender Male 48 (42.5) 18 (15.9) 0.308
  Female 37 (32.7) 10 (8.8)  
Physical Activity No 12 (10.6) 3 (2.7) 0.461
  Yes 73 (64.6) 25 (22.1)  
Smoke No 81 (71.7) 25 (22.1) 0.234
  Yes 4 (3.5) 3 (2.7)  
Type 2 Diabetes # No 66 (58.4) 21 (18.6) 0.479
  Yes 19 (16.8) 6 (6.2)  
Family history of T2D $ No 37 (38.9) 8 (8.4) 0.313
  Yes 38 (40.0) 12 (12.6)  
Family history of CAD $ No 44 (46.3) 12 (12.6) 0.326
  Yes 31 (32.6) 8 (8.4)  
Body Mass Index (kg/m^2) ≤23 22 (20.0) 3 (2.7) 0.005
  23 - 30 48 (43.6) 18 (16.4)  
  ≥30 12 (10.9) 7 (6.4)  
Total LDL Normal (< 150 mg/dl) 69 (61.6) 22 (19.6) 0.433
  Abnormal (≥ 150 mg/dl) 15 (13.4) 6 (5.4)  
Total Cholesterol Normal (< 200 mg/dl) 49 (43.8) 16 (14.3) 0.542
  Abnormal (≥ 200 mg/dl) 35 (31.3) 12 (10.7)  
Apo lipoprotein A-1 Normal (94 - 176 mg/dl) 59 (52.7) 26 (23.2) 0.011
  Abnormal 25 (22.3) 2 (1.8)  
Lipoprotein [a] Normal (< 10 mg/dl) 48 (43.6) 26 (23.6) < 0.0001
  Abnormal (≥10 mg/dl) 34 (30.9) 2 (1.8)  
hsCRP* Normal (< 5 mg/L) 45 (40.9) 18 (16.4) 0.118
  Abnormal (≥ 5 mg/L) 39 (35.5) 8 (7.3)  
Homocysteine Normal (< 12 umol/L) 44 (53.7) 20 (24.4) 0.512
  Abnormal (≥ 12 umol/L) 13 (15.9) 5 (6.1)  
  1. + n (%); *hsCRP = high sensitivity C reactive protein; # History/examination and/or blood test;
  2. $ T2D = type II diabetes; $CAD = Coronary Artery Disease; ** Fisher's Exact test;