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Table 2 Selected examples of dietary glycerophospholipids (GPLs) used as supplements in the mentioned studies

From: Health effects of dietary phospholipids

Brand name/Product name Product information given by the producer/publication
Dietary GPLs from soybean
Essentiale® 80% PC, other ingredients: soybean oil, castor oil, ethanol, ethylvanillin, methoxyacetophenon, food colourings, gelatine, tocopherol and water; as capsules. Nattermann & Cie. GmbH
Essentiale L® or Buer® Lecithin Soybean GPL (purity unknown), other ingredients: riboflavin, phosphate sodium, pyridoxine hydrochloride, cyanocobalamin, sodium panthotenate and nicotinamide; as capsules.
Nicholas Piramal India Ltd. Or Nycomed Germany GmbH
Lipoid S45® 45-50% soybean PC, 10-18% PE, max. 4% LysoPC. Typical FA composition: 58-65% linoleic acid, 12-17% palmitic acid, 8-12% oleic acid and other FAs; as powdered compound.
Lipoid GmbH
Lipostabil® 93% PC, other ingredients: ethanol, benzyl alcohol, deoxycholic acid, sodium hydroxide, sodium chloride, tocopherol and water; as liquid formulation. Artegodan GmbH
PC-55 55% PC, 30% PE, 3% PI, other PLs and triglycerides; as powdered compound. TwinLab [77]
PhosChol 80% soybean lecithin (Phosal 75A), 18% TG, other ingredients: anethole, tocopherol and paraben. Fatty acid composition: mainly linoleic acid; as liquid formulation.
Nutrasal LLC Co. [66]
Phospholipon®100 100% native soybean PC as a powdered compound.
Phospholipid GmbH
Phospholipon®90G 94-100% PC, LysoPC and tocopherol as powdered compound.
Phospholipid GmbH
Polyunsaturated PC PC with 40-52% linoleic acid (n-6); as powdered compound.
Rhone-Poulenc Rorer GmbH [104]
Polyunsaturated Lecithin 60% PC, 30% PE, 6% phosphatidic acid,
3% monophosphatidylinositol, 3% LysoPC, 80% unsaturated fatty acids, 20% other fatty acids; as powdered compound.
American Lecithin Co. [102]
Soy Lecithin 31.7% PC, 20.8% PE, 3% PS, 17.5% PI, 2% phosphatidic acid, other ingredients unknown; as powdered compound. Herbarium, Brazil [99]
Soy Lecithin 40.4% PC, 35.1% PE, 24.5% PI. Fatty acid composition: 56.6% linoleate, 18.9% palmitate and other fatty acids; as powdered compound. Central Soya, Fort Wayne IN [53]
Soybean PC 96.5% PC as powdered compound.
Tsujiseiyu Matsuzaka Co. [29]
Soybean PC capsules 64% soybean PC, 30% soybean oil, other PLs, ethanol and water. Fatty acid composition: 64% linoleic acid, 12% palmitic acid, 12% oleic acid, 8% linolenic acid and 4% stearic acid; as liquid compound. Nutrition et Santé, Revel, France [54]
Sterpur P-30 30% PC, 21% PE and 8% PI, other ingredients unknown; as granulate. Stern-Lecithin & Soya GmbH [39, 112]
Dietary GPLs from milk
Lacprodan® PL-20 27% PC, 22% PE, 8% PI, 27% SPM, 12% PS and other ingredients; as powdered compound.
Arla Foods Ingredients [57]
Sphingomyelin Extracted from bovine milk, unknown composition, as powdered compound. Avanti Polar Lipids, Inc. [34]
Dietary GPLs from marine origin
MPL (Neptune Krill oil, NKO™) 40% PL, 15% EPA and 9% DHA bound to PLs and neutral lipids, other ingredients: unsaturated FAs, saturated FAs, gelatine, glycerine, water; as liquid formulation packed in gelatine capsules. Jarrow Formulas Co.
MPL (Vitalipin®) 29% PC, 18% EPA and 26% DHA bound to PLs and neutral lipids, other ingredients: polyenes, monounsaturated FAs, saturated FAs, other fats; as liquid formulation packed in gelatine capsules. Membramed health food GmbH
Squid meal PC PC contains 35.2% palmitic acid, 9.2% EPA, 43% DHA and 13% other FAs; as powdered compounds.
Nippon chemical Feed Co. Ltd. [30]
Dietary GPLs from animal origin
Bovine liver PI 100% PI as powdered compound. Avanti Polar Lipids, Inc. [61]
Brain cortex derived PS Unknown composition. Fidia Farmaceutical S.p.A. [89]
Pig brain GPLs PLs with aprox. 23% saturated fatty acids, 53% monounsaturated fatty acids and 24% n-6 fatty acids, as powdered compound. Laboratoires Ponroy, France [71]