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Table 1 Potential infectious causes of atherosclerosis and/or underlying diseases

From: Modulation of paraoxonases during infectious diseases and its potential impact on atherosclerosis

Infection Host Affected PONs Effect on PONs Mediator(s) Atherosclerotic effect/heart attack References
Bacterial infections
LPS Human PON1 Oxidative stress and oxidative modification of HDL + [53, 54]
  Mice (male) PON1 • Decrease hepatic PON1 synthesis
• Oxidative stress
+ • [51, 73]
• [53]
  (female) PON1 ↑↓ • Increased hepatic PON1 synthesis (in case of ↑)
• Oxidative stress (in case of ↓)
+ • [51]
• [53, 74]
  Syrian hamster PON1 (TNF-α and IL-1)-mediated down-regulated hepatic PON1 mRNA   [75]
  HepG2 human hepatoma cells PON1 (IL-1β and TNF-α)-mediated hepatic PON1 down-regulation   [52]
  HepG2 human hepatoma cells PON1 (IL-6)-mediated hepatic PON1 up-regulation   [52]
Pulmonary tuberculosis Human PON1 Oxidant/anti-oxidant systems imbalance + [55]
Helicobacter pylori Human PON1 Oxidative stress and oxidative modification of HDL + [57]
Chlamydia pneumoniae Mice PON1 Down-regulate hepatic PON1 mRNA + [50]
Pseudomonas aeruginosa A549 and EA.hy 926 cell cultures PON2 Down-regulate PON2 mRNA   [69]
Viral infections
Influenza A strain WSN/33 C57BL/6 J mice PON1 Decreased hepatic PON1 protein synthesis + [76]
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) Human PON1 Oxidant/anti-oxidant systems imbalance + [77]
HCV Human PON3 Oxidant/anti-oxidant systems imbalance + [78]
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) Human PON1 • Oxidant/anti-oxidant systems imbalance
• Decrease (dysfunction) of HDL
• Decrease (dysfunction) of ApoA-1
  • [79]
• [80]
• [81, 82]
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Human PON1 Decrease (dysfunction) of HDL + [83, 84]
HIV CD34+CD4+ hematopoietic cell line TF-1 and thymocytes derived from the human fetal conjoint thymus/liver hematopoietic organ of SCID-hu mice PON2 Up-regulation of cellular PON2 mRNA expression   [85]
HIV Human PON3 Oxidative stress + [86]
Parasitic infections
Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas’ disease) Human PON1 PON2 PON3 ± • Oxidative stress, apoA-I miss structure
• TH1 immune polarization
± • [87]
• [8891]
Nippostrongylus brasiliensis Rat PON1 Pro-inflammatory cytokines-mediated hepatic PON1 down-regulation ± [9294]
Trichinella spiralis Rat PON1 Oxidant/anti-oxidant systems imbalance ± [95]
Schistosoma mansoni Mice Hepatic PON1 Oxidative stress [96]
  1. The arrows ↑ and ↓ represent increased and decreased PONs activity.
  2. The symbols +, — and ± mean, respectively, increase, decrease and unknown effect on atherosclerosis.