Palmitate-induced myotube loss associated with protein degradation. (A) Cells were treated with 0.2 mM palmitate for 24 hours, and BSA treatment was used as control. The transcription of Atrogin1 and MuRF1 genes was measured by qRT-PCR. (B) Cells were treated with palmitate for 24 hours and α-actin and β-actin protein levels were measured by western blot. GAPDH as control. (C) Cells were pretreated with 10 uM MG132 for 1 hour, followed by 0.4 mM palmitate treatment for 24 hours. DMSO and BSA treatments were used as controls for MG132 and palmitate, respectively. Representative photographs were shown. The values were expressed as mean±SEM (n=3).