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Table 2 Nutrients comparison of dietary intakes in lunches on 4-weeks of preparation period and test period

From: Eating a healthy lunch improves serum alanine aminotransferase activity

Nutrients/lunch Preparation period Test period Change P value
N 10 10   
Energy (kcal) 713±43 594±34 -118 0.000
Total protein (g) 28.1±2.7 25.7±1.1 -2.4 0.017
  Animal protein (g) 16.6±3.0 12.4±1.4 -4.2 0.002
  Plant protein (g) 11.5±0.8 13.3±0.7 1.8 0.000
Fat (g) 25.1±2.9 16.7±1.8 -8.5 0.000
Carbohydrate (g) 89.8±3.7 85.6±3.8 -4.2 0.022
Percentage of energy     
  Protein (%) 16.1±1.4 17.4±0.7 1.3 0.011
  Fat (%) 29.9±1.4 24.9±1.4 -5.0 0.000
  Carbohydrate (%) 54.0±1.7 57.7±1.1 3.6 0.001
Potassium (mg) 998±82 1092±53 94 0.016
Magnesium (mg) 100±8 102±5 2 0.375
Phosphorus (mg) 377±34 361±12 -16 0.158
Cryptoxanthin (μg) 17.9±9.5 12.3±1.7 -5.6 0.093
Retinol equivalents (μg) 207±48 167±19 -41 0.029
Vitamin D (μg) 2.95±1.26 4.23±1.27 1.28 0.061
α-Tocopherol (mg) 3.15±0.78 1.81±0.18 -1.34 0.000
Vitamin K (μg) 107±11 114±10 7 0.090
Vitamin B1 (mg) 0.374±0.095 0.321±0.042 -0.053 0.144
Vitamin B2 (mg) 0.393±0.059 0.340±0.016 -0.053 0.033
Niacin (mg) 6.52±1.02 6.48±0.63 -0.04 0.913
Vitamin B6 (mg) 0.502±0.054 0.609±0.037 0.107 0.000
Vitamin B12 (μg) 2.37±0.85 2.01±0.86 -0.36 0.400
Folic acid (μg) 120±9 140±7 20 0.001
Pantothenic acid (mg) 2.11±0.24 2.02±0.08 -0.09 0.355
Vitamin C (mg) 36.6±3.7 37.7±2.4 1.1 0.528
SFA (g) 5.87±1.31 3.72±0.62 -2.15 0.001
MUFA (g) 9.50±1.30 5.99±0.84 -3.51 0.000
PUFA (g) 6.83±1.04 4.70±0.38 -2.13 0.000
Cholesterol (mg) 129±49 98.4±14.8 -30 0.149
Water-soluble dietary     
fibre (g) 1.33±0.82 5.13±1.27 3.80 0.000
Insoluble dietary fibre (g) 3.73±0.28 4.67±0.13 0.94 0.000
Total dietary fibre (g) 6.02±0.96 10.4±1.3 4.39 0.000
Sodium (mg) 1523±167 1509±65 -14 0.818
Sodium chloride equivalent (g) 3.87±0.43 3.83±0.17 -0.04 0.789
  1. Data show mean ± S.D.
  2. P value: two-tailed paired t-test.
  3. Abbreviations: SFA Saturated fatty acids: MUFA, Monounsaturated fatty acids, PUFA Polyunsaturated fatty acids.