PI3K/AKT signaling is impaired in the offspring of DD. The level of phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT), which is part of the main signaling pathway downstream of PI3K, was determined by western blot analysis of PBMCs after stimulation with CXCL12. PBMCs were isolated from the offspring of CD, DD, and DD + TQ and pretreated with medium, WM, and SH5 for 1 h before stimulation with medium (0) or CXCL12 (250 ng/ml) for 5 min. In one representative experiment (A), the phosphorylation of AKT was monitored using an anti-p-AKT antibody and normalized against the total relevant protein (pan-AKT) on stripped blots. The experiment was conducted for 5 offspring from each group, and the results are expressed as the mean ± SEM normalized phosphorylation values (B). *P < 0.05 for diabetic vs. control; #P < 0.05 for diabetic + TQ vs. diabetic; +P < 0.05 for diabetic + TQ vs. control.