Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the DGPLEAD study overall and by combination antiretroviral therapy

From: Cardiometabolic risk factors among HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy

   Combination antiretroviral therapy  
Variable Overall (n = 118) AZT+3TC+NVP (n = 58) D4T+3TC+NVP (n = 43) Other ‡ (n = 17) P*
Age, years† 35.0 ± 7.9 36.7 ± 7.5 33.3 ± 7.3 33.5 ± 9.7 0.07
Gender, % female 55.9 41.4 72.1 64.7 0.01
BMI, kg/m2 20.2 ± 2.7 20.2 ± 2.7 20.0 ± 2.4 20.3 ± 3.5 0.86
BMI, %      
< 18.5 kg/m2 29.7 27.6 27.9 41.2 0.63
18.5 - 24.9 kg/m2 63.6 67.2 65.1 47.1  
≥ 25.0 kg/m2 6.8 5.2 7.0 11.8  
Weight, kg 54.9 ± 8.7 57.2 ± 9.0 51.9 ± 7.1 54.4 ± 9.7 0.01
Height, m 1.65 ± 0.08 1.68 ± 0.07 1.61 ± 0.07 1.64 ± 0.07 < 0.001
Waist circumference, cm 72.9 ± 6.7 73.8 ±7.2 72.7 ± 6.0 70.2 ± 6.3 0.16
Hip circumference, cm 89.1 ± 7.0 90.1 ± 7.4 88.1 ± 6.2 88.2 ± 7.7 0.32
MUAC, cm 24.9 ± 2.6 25.4 ± 2.7 24.2 ± 2.1 24.9 ± 2.9 0.06
Current smoker, % † 4.4 7.1 2.3 0.0 0.33
Current drinker, % † 9.6 14.3 4.7 6.3 0.24
Total energy intake, kcal/day 1750 ± 651 1840 ± 641 1620 ± 604 1770 ± 773 0.25
Total fat, % energy/day 31.7 ± 10.8 29.3 ± 9.5 34.0 ± 11.2 34.5 ± 12.4 0.05
MUFA, % energy/day 9.1 ± 3.5 8.3 ± 3.0 9.8 ± 4.2 9.8 ± 3.1 0.07
PUFA, % energy/day 14.1 ± 5.9 12.8 ± 5.0 15.2 ± 5.9 15.4 ± 7.9 0.07
Saturated fat, % energy/day 6.3 ± 2.5 6.0 ± 2.5 6.6 ± 2.7 6.8 ± 2.4 0.37
Carbohydrates, % energy/day 56.1 ± 12.4 58.0 ± 11.5 54.2 ± 12.8 54.5 ± 14.3 0.27
Proteins, % energy/day 12.9 ± 3.9 13.4 ± 4.2 12.6 ± 4.0 12.0 ± 2.2 0.34
CD4 count, cells/μL 136 ± 50 137 ± 45 133 ± 51 138 ± 65 0.87
CRP, mg/L † 9.48 [2.04, 25.94] 5.62 [1.31, 17.36] 16.62 [5.51, 44.31] 4.05 [1.64, 25.62] 0.01
CRP ≥ 3.0 mg/L, % † 70.4 63.5 84.6 58.8 0.05
Albumin, g/dL † 3.11 ± 0.71 3.44 ± 0.59 2.67 ± 0.64 3.14 ± 0.67 < 0.001
Albumin < 3.5 g/dL, % † 65.7 48.1 89.7 64.7 < 0.001
Creatinine ≥ 2.0 mg/dL, % † 0.93 0.0 2.6 0.0 0.41
Fasting insulin, μU/mL † 3.00 [1.90, 5.40] 3.00 [2.00, 5.00] 3.00 [1.50, 5.00] 2.60 [1.20, 5.90] 0.80
Fasting glucose, mmol/L † 3.80 [3.40, 4.10] 3.90 [3.60, 4.30] 3.70 [3.40, 4.10] 3.60 [3.00, 3.90] 0.02
HOMA-IR 0.51 [0.30, 0.98] 0.53 [0.33, 0.93] 0.50 [0.28, 1.00] 0.45 [0.16, 0.98] 0.63
Total cholesterol, mmol/L 3.56 ± 0.83 3.68 ± 0.75 3.42 ± 0.92 3.52 ± 0.86 0.27
Triglycerides, mmol/L 1.02 [0.85, 1.37] 1.01 [0.86, 1.33] 1.16 [0.88, 1.60] 0.95 [0.77, 1.05] 0.15
LDL-cholesterol, mmol/L 2.12 ± 0.75 2.26 ± 0.62 1.93 ± 0.89 2.10 ± 0.68 0.10
HDL-cholesterol, mmol/L 0.72 [0.52, 1.09] 0.80 [0.61, 1.15] 0.65 [0.34, 0.92] 0.76 [0.57, 1.03] 0.08
TC:HDL-c ratio 4.77 [3.51, 6.30] 4.54 [3.44, 5.84] 5.32 [3.97, 8.93] 4.34 [3.33, 5.82] 0.15
  1. DGPLEAD, Diet, Genetic Polymorphisms in Lipid-Metabolizing Enzyme genes, and Antiretroviral Therapy-Related Dyslipidemia; BMI, Body Mass Index; MUAC, Mid Upper Arm Circumference; MUFA, Monounsaturated Fatty Acids; PUFA, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids; CRP, C-reactive Protein; LDL, Low Density Lipoprotein; HDL, High Density Lipoprotein; TC, Total Cholesterol; HOMA-IR, Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance.
  2. Values are reported as mean ± standard deviation, median [25th percentile, 75th percentile] or percent.
  3. ‡ AZT + 3TC + EFV, D4T + 3TC + EFV, TDF + FTC + EFV, or TDF+FTC+NVP.
  4. * P-values for the comparison between cART regimens were obtained through one-way ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis tests for continuous variables and from Chi-square tests for categorical variables.
  5. † Variables with missing values – 1 for glucose, 2 for age, 3 for both smoking and alcohol status, 10 for CRP, albumin and creatinine and 20 for insulin.