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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of demographic, lifestyle, and medical factors of subjects according to gender and dry eye diseses

From: Total cholesterol and lipoprotein composition are associated with dry eye disease in Korean women

  Male Female
Non-DED (n = 2292) DED (n = 116) P-value Non-DED (n = 2804) DED (n = 415) P-value
Age (years) 44.2 ± 0.5 47 ± 1.9 0.2729 46.2 ± 0.5 44.9 ± 1.1 0.1566
Residential district (% rural) 21.8(3.3) 22.2(5.3) 0.9171 23.4(3.5) 14.4(3.1) 0.0007
Monthly income (% lowest quartile) 14.9(1.1) 13.3(3.8) 0.6809 19.3(1.2) 18.4(2.5) 0.7324
Education (% some college≥) 36.7(1.6) 37.9(5.7) 0.8314 28.9(1.4) 28.7(2.9) 0.9368
BMI (kg/m2) 24 ± 0.1 23.8 ± 0.3 0.0156 23.3 ± 0.1 22.7 ± 0.2 0.5919
Waist circumference (cm) 84.9 ± 0.9 84.2 ± 0.9 0.0063 78.1 ± 0.3 76.4 ± 0.6 0.593
Smoker (%) 42.3(1.2) 39.8(5.7) 0.648 5.5(0.6) 3.6(1.3) 0.2473
Heavy-drinker (%) 18.2(0.9) 13.3(3.7) 0.2571 1.8(0.3) 1.5(0.9) 0.7757
Exercise (% yes) 25.7(1.2) 23.8(5) 0.7217 20.3(1.1) 16(2.4) 0.1141
Menopause (% yes) NA NA NA 35.5(1.5) 38.3(3.1) 0.4255
Symptoms of DED (% yes) 8(1) 81.3(4.7) <.0001 12.1(1.1) 81.4(3) <.0001
Diabetes (% yes) 11(0.9) 10.9(3.3) 0.9851 9.1(0.8) 8.9(1.6) 0.8944
Hypertension (% yes) 31(1.5) 27.3(5.7) 0.5244 46.5(1.4) 48.3(3.3) 0.6178
Rheumatoid arthritis history (% yes) 1.6(0.4) 1.4(1.1) 0.8616 3.1(0.4) 3.2(0.9) 0.9261
Any ophthalmic surgery (% yes) 7.8(0.6) 24.6(5.1) <.0001 13.5(0.8) 24.1(2.4) <.0001
Mean SBP (mmHg) 122 ± 0.5 121.2 ± 1.7 0.3422 117.4 ± 0.6 116.3 ± 1 0.6275
Mean DBP (mmHg) 80.4 ± 0.4 78.7 ± 0.9 0.8309 74.3 ± 0.3 74.2 ± 0.5 0.0868
Laboratory data       
Glucose (mg/dL) 98.2 ± 0.7 98.1 ± 1.9 0.8866 94.3 ± 0.5 94.1 ± 1.2 0.9478
Insulin (uIU/mL) 10.4 ± 0.1 9.9 ± 0.4 0.375 10.5 ± 0.1 10.1 ± 0.2 0.3519
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 187.2 ± 1 184.5 ± 3.4 0.6799 186.7 ± 0.9 185.8 ± 2.2 0.4302
Triglycerides (mf/dL) 157.4 ± 3.9 134 ± 9.7 0.721 109.3 ± 2 106.2 ± 4 0.1337
HDL 49.6 ± 0.3 51.5 ± 1.5 0.6395 56 ± 0.3 56.3 ± 0.7 0.2197
LDL 112.3 ± 0.9 110.4 ± 3.3 0.8224 113.9 ± 0.7 113.4 ± 1.9 0.5698
  1. Values are represented as means ± SD. Numbers in brackets represent percentages (standard error).
  2. DED = dry eye disease; BMI = Body mass index; SBP = systolic blood pressure; DBP = diastolic blood pressure; HDL = high-density lipoprotein; LDL = low-density lipoprotein.