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Table 1 Causes of hyperhomocysteinemia

From: Notable epigenetic role of hyperhomocysteinemia in atherogenesis

Genetic defects Vitamin deficiencies Other factors
Cystathionine β-synthase deficiency; Lack of folic acid; Age;
Lack of vitamin B6; Male sex;
5,10-methyltetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency; Lack of vitamin B12 Lifestyle factors (smoking, coffee, alcohol abuse);
Methionine synthase deficiency; Chronic renal insufficiency;
Hepatic dysfunction;
Genetic defects in the vitamin B12 metabolism Systemic lupus erythematosus;
End stage diabetes mellitus
   Hypothyroidism et al.