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Table 1 General study characteristics of the included cohort studies

From: Monounsaturated fatty acids, olive oil and health status: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies

Author, year Cohort name country Outcomes Population Follow-up (years) Age at entry (years) Sex MUFA source Adjustment Multivariate adjusted Study quality
(Newcastle-Ottawa scale)
Atkins et al. 2014[34] British Regional Heart Study GBR All-cause mortality CVD mortality CVD events CHD events 3,328 11.3 60-79 M Olive oil Age, energy intake, smoking, alcohol, PA, social class, BMI, and a modified version of the HDI/EDI score not containing the individual component of interest Fourth vs. first quartile 8
Barzi et al. 2003[50] Studio della Sopravvivenza nell’Infarto Miocardico ITA All-cause mortality 11,323 with myocardial infarction 6.5 59 M/F Olive oil Age, sex, hypertension, HDL-cholesterol, diabetes, smoking, claudication, electrical instability, left ventricular dysfunction, residual myocardial ischaemia, dietary supplementation, pharmacological therapies Third vs. first tertile 7
Bendinelli et al. 2011[49] European Prospective Into Cancer and Nutrition ITA CHD 29,689 7.85 35-74 F MUFA MUFA:SFA Energy intake, educational level, smoking status, alcohol consumption, body height, body weight, waist circumference daily non-alcohol caloric intake, hypertension, menopausal status, PA, total meat consumption Fourth vs. first quartile 8
Buckland et al. 2012[11] European Prospective Into Cancer and Nutrition SPA All-cause mortality CVD mortality Cancer mortality 41,078 10.4 29-69 M/F Olive oil Centre, sex, age, energy intake, BMI, waist circumference, educational status, smoking status, PA, and alcohol intake, intake of fruit, vegetables, meat, and dairy Fourth vs. first quartile 8
Buckland et al. 2012[56] European Prospective Into Cancer and Nutrition SPA CHD 40,142 10.4 29-69 M/F Olive oil Educational level, BMI, waist circumference, PA, smoking status, alcohol consumption, energy intake excluding alcohol, hyperlipidaemia, hypertension and diabetes, Mediterranean diet score (excluding olive oil and alcohol) Fourth vs. first quartile 8
Chiuve et al. 2012[32] Nurses’ Health Study USA Sudden death 91,981 30 34-59 F MUFA Total calories, smoking, BMI, family history of myocardial infarction, menopausal status, hormone therapy, exercise, aspirin use, use of multivitamins, use of vitamin E supplements, alcohol use, and history of diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, coronary heart disease, and cancer at baseline, percentage of energy from total fat Fifth vs. first quintile 8
Dilis et al. 2012[19] European Prospective Into Cancer and Nutrition GRE CHD mortality CHD incidence 23,929 10 20-86 M/F MUFA Olive Oil MUFA:SFA Age, BMI, height, PA, years of schooling and energy intake entered, alcohol consumption, smoking status and arterial blood pressure 1 SD increment 9
Esrey et al. 1996[42] Lipid Research Clinics Prevalence Study USA CVD mortality 4,546 12.4 ≥30 M/F MUFA Age, sex, energy intake, serum lipids, systolic blood pressure, cigarette smoking, BMI, glucose intolerance 1 unit increase 9
Gardener et al. 2011[43] Northern Manhattan Study USA Ischemic stroke Myocardial infarction Vascular death 2,568 9 >40 M/F MUFA:SFA Age, sex, race ethnicity, completion of high school education, moderate-to-heavy PA, energy intake, and cigarette smoking ≥ median vs. < median 7
Gillman et al. 1997[40] Framingham Heart Study USA Stroke 832 20 45-65 M MUFA Age, energy, systolic blood pressure, cigarette smoking, glucose intolerance, BMI, PA, left ventricular hypertrophy, alcohol, fruit and vegetables 1% increase MUFA 9
Goldbourt et al. 1993[18] Israeli Ischemic Heart Disease Study ISR CHD All-cause mortality 10,059 23 >40 M MUFA:SFA Age Fifth vs. first quintile 7
Guasch-Ferre et al. 2014[54] PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea SPA All-cause mortality CVD mortality CVD events 7216 4.8 55-80 M/W Olive oil Age, sex, BMI, smoking status, alcohol intake, education level, PA, prevalence of diabetes, prevalence of hypertension, prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, use of antihypertensive, use of statins, Mediterranean diet adherence Third vs. first tertile 8
He et al. 2003[47] Health professional study USA Stroke 43,732 14 40-75 M MUFA BMI, PA, history of hypertension, smoking status, aspirin use, multivitamin use, and consumption of alcohol, potassium, fibre, and vitamin E, total servings of fruit and vegetables, total energy intake, and hypercholesterolemia at baseline Fifth vs. first quintile 7
Houston et al. 2011[38] Health ABC study USA CVD events 1,941 9 70-79 M/F MUFA Age, gender, race, education, field centre, smoking, alcohol use, PA, BMI, total energy intake, protein intake, fibre intake, multivitamin use, supplemental vitamin E use, statin use, aspirin use, oral estrogen use, and prevalent diabetes or hypertension, fat, PUFA, trans fat, and cholesterol Third vs. first tertile 8
Iso et al. 2001[37] Nurses’ Health Study USA Stroke 85,764 14 30-59 F MUFA Age, smoking status, time interval, BMI, alcohol intake, menopausal status and postmenopausal hormone use, vigorous exercise, usual aspirin use, multivitamin use, vitamin E use, n-3 fatty acid intake, calcium intake, and histories of hypertension, diabetes, high cholesterol levels, and total energy intake Fifth vs. first quintile 7
Iso et al. 2003[36] JAP Stroke 4,775 14 40-69 M/F MUFA Age, sex, quartiles of total energy intake and BMI, hypertension category, diabetes, serum total cholesterol, smoking status, ethanol intake, and menopausal status Fourth vs. first quartile 8
Jakobsen et al. 2004[4] Multinational MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease I, II EU CHD 3,686 16 30-71 M/F MUFA Total energy intake, energy from protein, energy from fat, energy from carbohydrates, non-dietary and dietary coronary heart disease risk factors 5% increase 8
Kouris-Blazos et al. 1999[55] AUS All-cause mortality 330 4-6 >70 M/F MUFA:SFA Age, sex and smoking status but not ethnic origin MUFA:SFA (1 unit) 6
Larsson et al. 2012[48] Swedish Mammography Cohort SWE Stroke 34,670 10.4 49-83 F MUFA Age, smoking status and pack-years of smoking, education, BMI, PA, history of hypertension, history of diabetes, aspirin use, family history of myocardial infarction, intakes of alcohol, protein, and dietary fibre, cholesterol Fifth vs. first quintile 8
Lasheras et al. 2000[26] SPA All-cause mortality 161 9 65-95 M/F MUFA:SFA Age, sex, BMI, albumin concentration, PA, self-assessment of health, and dieting for chronic conditions MUFA:SFA (1 unit) 6
Leosdottir et al. 2007[28], Wallström et al. 2012[29] Malmö Diet and cancer Study SWE CVD events Stroke CHD 28,098 13.5 44-73 M/F MUFA MUFA:SFA Age, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, socioeconomic status, marital status, PA, BMI, fibre intake, and blood pressure, total fat intake for the ratio between unsaturated and saturated fats Fifth vs. first quintile Fourth vs. first quartile 9
Levitan et al. 2013[57] Women’s Health Initiative trial and observational study USA Heart Failure 68,132 (WHI) 93,676 (WHI-OS) 4.6 50-79 F MUFA:SFA Age at heart failure hospitalization, total energy intake, race/ethnicity, education, income, married, current smoking, total exercise, physical function, use of off-study postmenopausal hormone therapy, Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) study arm, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, use of diuretics, β-blockers, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, BMI, and history of high cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, and atrial fibrillation Fourth vs. first quartile 8
Martinez-Gonzalez et al. 2011[45] Seguimiento University of Navarra SPA All-cause mortality 15,535 6.8 University graduates (mean: 38) M/F MUFA:SFA Age, years of university of education, BMI, smoking, PA, hours per day spent watching television, history of depression, baseline hypertension, baseline hypercholesterolemia, total energy intake, egg consumption, potato consumption, and adoption of special diets ≥ median vs. < median 8
Martinez-Gonzalez et al. 2009 Seguimiento University of Navarra SPA CVD CHD 13,609 4.9 University graduates (mean: 38) M/F MUFA:SFA Age, sex, family history of coronary heart disease, total energy intake, PA, smoking, BMI, diabetes at baseline, use of aspirin, history of hypertension and history of hypercholesterolemia ≥ median (W: ≥1.24, M: ≥1.19) vs. < median 8
Misirli et al. 2012[52] European Prospective Into Cancer and Nutrition GRE Stroke Incidence Stroke Mortality 23,601 10.6 20-87 M/F MUFA Olive Oil Age, sex, education, smoking status, BMI, PA, hypertension, diabetes, and total energy intake. Olive oil (23 g/d) MUFA (18 g/d) 9
Nagata et al. 2012[31] Takayama study JAP All-cause mortality CVD mortality Cancer mortality 28,356 16 ≥35 M/F MUFA Age, non-alcohol energy, and protein expressed as percentage of non-alcohol energy and was additionally adjusted for fat subtypes expressed as percentage of non-alcohol energy as appropriate, height, BMI, PA, smoking status, alcohol intake, education, marital status, menopausal status, histories of diabetes and hypertension, and intakes of fruits, vegetables, and dietary fibre Fifth vs. first quintile 8
Oh et al. 2005[33] Nurses’ Health Study USA CHD 78,778 20 30-55 F MUFA Age, BMI, smoking, alcohol intake, parental history of myocardial infarction, history of hypertension, menopausal status and hormone use, aspirin use, multivitamin use, vitamin E supplement use, PA, energy, protein, cholesterol intake, saturated, polyunsaturated, and trans-fat; a-linolenic acid; marine n-3 fatty acids; cereal fiber; and fruits and vegetables Fifth vs. first quintile 7
Pietinen et al. 1997[53] Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study USA CVD events CVD mortality 21,930 6.1 50-69 M MUFA Oleic acid Age, smoking, BMI, blood pressure, energy intake, alcohol, education, PA Fifth vs. first quintile 7
Posner et al. 1991[46] Framingham Study USA CHD 813 16 45-65 M MUFA Energy, serum cholesterol levels, PA, systolic blood pressure, left ventricular hypertrophy, cigarette smoking, glucose intolerance, and metropolitan relative weight For recommended vs. actual intake 9
Sauvaget et al. 2004[35] JAP Stroke 3,731 14 35-89 M/F MUFA Age, sex, adjusted for radiation dose, city, BMI, smoking status, alcohol habits, and medical history of hypertension and diabetes Third vs. first tertile 8
Samieri et al. 2011[10] Three city study FRA Stroke 7,625 5.25 ≥65 M/F Olive oil Age, sex, education, smoking status, BMI, PA, hypertension, diabetes, and total energy intake Third vs. first tertile 8
Solfrizzi et al. 2005[51] Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging ITA All-cause mortality 278 8.5 65-84 F MUFA MUFA:SFA Age, sex, waist-hip ratio, smoking status, Charlson co-morbidity index, and total energy intake Fourth vs. first quartile 7
Tognon et al. 2011[24] DEN All-cause mortality 1,037 8.5 70 M/F MUFA:SFA Gender, BMI, waist circumference, PA, smoking status, marital status and education ≥ median vs. < median 7
Trichopoulou et al. 2005[23] European Prospective Into Cancer and Nutrition Elderly EU All-cause mortality 74,607 7.4 >60 M/F MUFA MUFA:SFA Age, sex, diabetes mellitus at baseline, waist to hip ratio, BMI, educational achievement, smoking status, PA at occupation, PA score at leisure, alcohol intake, and total energy intake MUFA (12 g) MUFA:SFA (0.4) 8
Trichopoulou et al. 2009[20] European Prospective Into Cancer and Nutrition GRE All-cause mortality 23,349 8.5 20-86 M/F MUFA:SFA Age, sex, education, smoking status, waist-to-hip ratio, BMI, MET score, and total energy intake ≥ median vs. < median 9
Trichopoulou et al. 1995[22] GRE All-cause mortality 182 4-5 >70 M/F MUFA:SFA Age, sex, and smoking status MUFA:SFA (1 unit) 7
Trichopoulou et al. 2003[21] European Prospective Into Cancer and Nutrition GRE All-cause mortality 22,043 3.7 20-86 M/F MUFA Olive oil MUFA:SFA Age, sex, waist-to-hip ratio, energy-expenditure score, years of education, smoking status, BMI, and total energy intake MUFA (15 g/d) Increment olive oil (20 g) MUFA:SFA (0.5) 9
Van den Brandt et al. 2011[27] Netherlands cohort study NED All-cause mortality 120,852 10 55-69 M/F MUFA:SFA Age, cigarette smoking status, number of cigarettes smoked per day, years of smoking, BMI, non-occupational PA, history of hypertension, highest level of education, and energy intake Fourth vs. first quartile 9
Yaemsiri et al. 2012[39] Women’s Health initiative observational study USA Stroke 87,025 7.6 50-79 F MUFA Age, race, education, family income, total metabolic equivalent task hours per week, alcohol intake, history of CHD, history of atrial fibrillation, history of diabetes, aspirin use, use of antihypertensive medication, use of cholesterol-lowering medication, BMI, systolic blood pressure, and total energy intake, dietary vitamin E, fruits and vegetable intake, fibre Fifth vs. first quintile 8
Xu et al. 2006[41] Strong Heart Study USA CHD CHD mortality 2,938 7.2 47-79 M/F MUFA Age, sex, energy, study centre, diabetes status, BMI, HDL, LDL, triacylglycerol, smoking, alcohol consumption, hypertension, percentage of energy from protein, and total energy intake Fourth vs. first quartile 9
Wakai et al. 2014[30] Japan Collaborative Cohort Study JAP All-cause mortality CVD mortality 58,672 19.3 40-79 M/F MUFA Age, area, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, BMI, sleep duration, walking, consumption of vegetables and fruit, and total energy intake Fifth vs. first quintile 8
  1. BMI Body Mass Index, CHD coronary heart disease, CVD cardiovascular disease, DEN Denmark, EDI Elderly Diet Index, EU European Union, FRA France, GBR Great Britain, HDI Healthy Diet Index, ISR Israel, ITA Italy, JAP Japan, MET metabolic equivalent of task, MUFA monounsaturated fatty acids, NED The Netherlands, PA physical activity, SFA saturated fatty acids, SPA Spain, SWE Sweden, WHI Women’s Health Initiative, USA United States of America.