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Table 3 Summary results for each intervention group

From: Favourable effects of consuming a Palaeolithic-type diet on characteristics of the metabolic syndrome: a randomized controlled pilot-study

Variable Palaeolithic (n 18) Reference (n 16) P a Differenceb P c
   Mean SD Mean SD    
Anthropometric         
Bodyweight (kg)        −1.3 (−2.3; −0.3) 0.01
  Baseline 98.0 18.2 86.0 14.2 0.04   
  2 weeks 95.3 17.5 84.3 12.5    
BMI (kg/m2)        −0.5 (−0.9; −0.1) 0.01
  Baseline 33.7 5.9 29.8 4.9 0.05   
  2 weeks 32.8 5.8 29.7 5.2    
Abdominal circumference (cm)       −0.4 (−2.4; 1.6) 0.69
  Baseline 114.7 11.5 107.7 9.4 0.06   
  2 weeks 111.6 12.3 104.7 8.7    
Systolic BP (mmHg)       −9.1 (−16.2; −1.9) 0.02
  Baseline 131 15 134 15 0.48   
  2 weeks 122 10 129 14 ·   
Diastolic BP (mmHg)       −5.2 (−10.0; −0.3) 0.04
  Baseline 87 9 86 13 0.75   
  2 weeks 79 6 83 9 ·   
Characteristics of the MetS (n),       −1.1 (−1.9; −0.3) 0.01
range 0-5 Baseline 3.7 1.1 2.7 1.3 0.02   
  2 weeks 2.7 1.0 2.9 1.2    
Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity       
Glucose fasting (mmol/l)       −0.1 (−0.5; 0.3) 0.68
  Baseline 6.1 0.8 5.8 0.7 0.34   
  2 weeks 5.7 0.8 5.5 0.8    
Insulin fasting (mU/l)       −2 · 0 (−5.0; 1.1) 0.20
  Baseline 11.9 5.5 10.2 6.5 0.40   
  2 weeks 9.2 4.9 9.5 5.3    
HOMAIRd        −0.5 (−1.4; 0.4) 0.28
  Baseline 3.3 1.7 2.7 1.8 0.32   
  2 weeks 2.4 1.6 2.4 1.3    
AUC glucose (mmol/l x min)       −27.7 (−156.6; 101.1) 0.66
  Baseline 263 208 249 162 0.83   
  2 weeks 245 199 262 216    
AUC insulin (mU/l x min)       −1 342 · (−415; 3 099) 0.13
  Baseline 8 791 6 200 6 270 3 619 0.16   
  2 weeks 6 873 2 692 6 955 3 365    
TG:HDL-C (mol/mol)       −0.9 (−1.3; −0.5) 0.00
  Baseline 1.7 1.6 0.9 0.6 0.07   
  2 weeks 0.9 0.7 1.1 0.7    
Lipids         
TC (mmol/l)       −0.5 (−1.0; −0.0) 0.04
  Baseline 5.7 1.0 6.1 1.4 0.33   
  2 weeks 5.0 0.9 6.0 1.2    
HDL-C (mmol/l)        0.2 (0.0; 0.3) 0.01
  Baseline 1.3 0.4 1.6 0.4 0.06   
  2 weeks 1.3 0.4 1.4 0.4    
LDL-C (mmol/l)        −0.1 (−0.5; 0.3) 0.56
  Baseline 3.5 0.7 3.9 1.4 0.27   
  2 weeks 3.2 0.8 3.9 1.1    
TG (mmol/l)        −0.9 (−1.3; −0.5) 0.00
  Baseline 1.9 1.4 1.3 0.6 0.10   
  2 weeks 1.0 0.6 1.4 0.6    
TC:HDL-C (mol/mol)       −1.2 (−1.9; −0.4) 0.00
  Baseline 4.6 1.5 3.5 2.1 0.11   
  2 weeks 4.0 1.3 4.5 1.5    
Inflammation         
hsCRP (mg/l)        0.1 (−2.2; 2.3) 0.96
  Baseline 4.4 3.4 2.3 3.1 0.07   
  2 weeks 4.6 3.1 3.0 4.5    
TNFα (pg/ml)        −0.6 (−1.7; 0.6) 0.32
  Baseline 3.9 1.8 4.3 3.0 0.65   
  2 weeks 4.0 1.6 4.3 3.1    
Intestinal permeability        
Lactulose:mannitol (mol/mol), in 5 h urine portion     −0.007 (−0.023; 0.008) 0.35
  Baseline 0.029 0.017 0.024 0.021 0.66   
  2 weeks 0.024 0.013 0.033 0.025    
Stress parameter         
Diurnal cortisol slope, wakeup-bedtime      −0.08 (−0.36; 0.20) 0.54
  Baseline −0.41 −0.30;-0.72e −0.38 −0.30;-0.70e 0.43   
  2 weeks −0.40 −0.22;-0.54e −0.57 −0.28;-0.62e    
  1. Abbreviations: TG triglycerides, HDL-C HDL-cholesterol, TC total cholesterol, LDL-C LDL-cholesterol.
  2. Mean values and standard deviations, intention-to-treat.
  3. aP values between the two intervention groups at baseline.
  4. bDifference = Palaeolithic-type diet – reference diet. Values are 95% CI.
  5. cP values between the two intervention groups after the intervention.
  6. dFor HOMAIR the following equation was used: HOMAIR = (fasting insulin mmol/l x fasting glucose mU/l)/22.4.
  7. eData are median (25st;75st percentile).