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Table 5 Differences between baseline and after intervention for both groups

From: Favourable effects of consuming a Palaeolithic-type diet on characteristics of the metabolic syndrome: a randomized controlled pilot-study

Variable Paired Differences
All (n 34) Palaeolithic (n 18) Reference (n 14)
  Mean SD P* Mean SD P* Mean SD P*
Anthropometric          
  Abdominal circumference (cm) −3.2 2.2 0.00 −3.1 2.0 0.00 −3.3 2.4 0.00
  Systolic BP (mmHg) −6.6 9.8 0.00 −8.5 12.0 0.01 −4.2 5.6 0.02
  Diastolic BP (mmHg) −6.0 7.5 0.00 −8.0 8.3 0.0 −3.5 5.6 0.03
Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity         
  Glucose fasting (mmol/l) −0.4 0.5 0.00 −0.4 0.5 0.01 −0.4 0.4 0.00
  Insulin fasting (mU/l) −2.1 4.3 0.01 −2.7 5.0 0.03 −1.4 3.2 0.14
  HOMAIR −0.7 1.3 0.00 −0.9 1.5 0.03 −0.5 0.9 0.06
  AUC glucose (mmol/l x min) −6 141 0.81 −18 170 0.66 9 98 0.73
  AUC insulin (mU/l x min) −921 3 565 0.15 −1 918 4 361 0.08 362 1 515 0.39
  TG:HDL-C (mol/mol) −0.4 1.0 0.04 −0.8 1.2 0.01 0.2 0.3 0.08
Lipids          
  TC (mmol/l) −0.6 0.7 0.000 −07 0.7 0.00 −0.4 0.5 0.02
  HDL-C (mmol/l) −0.1 0.2 0.001 −0.0 0.1 0.38 −0.2 0.1 0.00
  LDL-C (mmol/l) −0.2 0.5 0.01 −0.3 0.5 0.02 −0.2 0.5 0.18
  TG (mmol/l) −0.5 1.0 0.01 −0.9 1.1 0.00 0.1 0.4 0.63
  TC:HDL-C (mol/mol) 0.1 1.2 0.72 −0.5 0.7 0.01 0.9 1.3 0.03
Inflammation          
  hsCRP (mg/l) 0.3 2.5 0.54 0.2 2.8 0.79 0.4 2.1 0.49
  TNFα (pg/ml) 0.2 1.3 0.45 0.1 1.6 0.87 0.3 0.7 0.13
Intestinal permeability          
  Lactulose:mannitol (mmol/mol) 0.003 0.020 0.3 −0.002 0.020 0.65 0.009 0.012 0.11
Other laboratory parameters         
Urine          
  Sodium:potassium (mmol/mol) −0.88 0.93 0.00 −1.11 0.97 0.00 −0.57 0.82 0.02
Serum          
  Homocysteine (μmol/l) 0.8 1.6 0.01 1.2 1.3 0.00 0.3 1.9 0.60
  1. Abbreviations: TG triglycerides, HDL-C HDL-cholesterol, TC total cholesterol, LDL-C LDL-cholesterol.
  2. Mean values and standard deviations, per-protocol.
  3. *P values for the difference between baseline and after intervention, computed by two-tailed paired t-test, not adjusted.