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Table 6 Post-hoc analysis: differences without and with weight loss added to the model

From: Favourable effects of consuming a Palaeolithic-type diet on characteristics of the metabolic syndrome: a randomized controlled pilot-study

Variable Differencea P b Adjusted differencecweight loss added to the model P b
Anthropometric     
  Abdominal circumference (cm) −0.4 (−2.4;1.6) 0.69 −0.9 (−3.2;1.5) 0.56
  Systolic BP (mmHg) −9.1 (−16.2;-1.9) 0.02 −13.0 (−25.4;-0.6) 0.04
  Diastolic BP (mmHg) −5.2 (−10.0;-0.3) 0.04 −4.9 (−10.7;0.9) 0.09
  Characteristics of the MetS (n) −1.1 (−1.9;-0.3) 0.01 −1.0 (−1.8;-0.1) 0.03
Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity    
  Glucose fasting (mmol/l) −0.1 (−0.5;0.3) 0.68 −0.0 (−0.5;0.5) 0.91
  Insulin fasting (mU/l) −2.0 (−5.0;1.1) 0.20 −1.4 (−5.1;2.3) 0.44
  HOMAIR −0.5 (−1.4;0.4) 0.28 −0.5 (−1.6;0.7) 0.41
  AUC glucose (mmol/l x min) −28 (−157;101) 0.66 −107 (−247; 33) 0.13
  AUC insulin (mU/l x min) −1 342 (−415; 3 099) 0.13 −484 (−2 503; 1 535) 0.63
  TG:HDL-C (mol/mol) −0.9 (−1.3;-0.5) 0.00 −0.7 (−1.1;-0.3) 0.00
Lipids     
  TC (mmol/l) −0.5 (−1.0;-0.0) 0.04 −0.3 (−0.8;0.3) 0.35
  HDL-C (mmol/l) 0.2 (0.0;0.3) 0.01 0.15 (0.01;0.29) 0.04
  LDL-C (mmol/l) −0.1 (−0.5;0.3) 0.56 −0.1 (−0.5;0.4) 0.75
  TG (mmol/l) −0.9 (−1.3;-0.5) 0.00 −0.7 (−1.0;-0.3) 0.00
  TC:HDL-C (mol/mol) −1.2 (−1.9;-0.4) 0.00 −1.1 (−2.0;-0.3) 0.01
Inflammation     
  hsCRP (mg/l) 0.1 (−2.2;2.3) 0.96 0.1 (−2.7;2.8) 0.95
  TNFα (pg/ml) −0.6 (−1.7;0.6) 0.32 −0.7 (−2.0;0.7) 0.31
Intestinal permeability     
  Lactulose:mannitol (mmol/mol) −0.07 (−0.023;0.008) 0.35 −0.012 (−0.031;0.008) 0.24
Stress parameter     
  Diurnal cortisol slope −0.08 (−0.36;0.20) 0.54 −0.10 (−0.44;0.25) 0.24
  wakeup-bedtime     
  1. Abbreviations: TG triglycerides, HDL-C HDL-cholesterol, TC total cholesterol, LDL-C LDL-cholesterol.
  2. Adjusted differences after the intervention between both diets without and with weight loss added to the model.
  3. aDifference = Palaeolithic-type diet – reference diet (with 95% CI).
  4. bP values between the two intervention groups after the intervention.
  5. cAdjusted difference = Palaeolithic-type diet – reference diet (with 95% CI), percentage weight loss added to the model as fixed effect.