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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants

From: Short-term intake of a Japanese-style healthy lunch menu contributes to prevention and/or improvement in metabolic syndrome among middle-aged men: a non-randomized controlled trial

Characteristics Control group Intervention group p value All
  (n = 7) (n = 28) (n = 35)
Age (y)* 42.1 ± 4.5 48.5 ± 8.1 0.013 47.2 ± 7.9
Height (cm)* 174.3 ± 4.4 168.0 ± 5.8 0.012 169.3 ± 6.0
Weight (kg)† 70.4 ± 13.1 71.8 ± 11.3 0.773 71.5 ± 11.5
BMI (kg/m2)* 23.1 ± 3.9 25.4 ± 3.3 0.130 24.9 ± 3.5
BFP (%)† 23.6 ± 6.5 26.1 ± 5.8 0.208 25.6 ± 5.9
SBP (mmHg)† 127.3 ± 10.0 138.8 ± 14.1 0.117 136.5 ± 14.0
DBP (mmHg)* 81.3 ± 7.4 89.3 ± 11.0 0.080 87.7 ± 10.8
Waist Circumference (cm)* 85.2 ± 11.6 88.3 ± 9.2 0.449 87.7 ± 9.7
T-Chol (mg/dL)* 185 ± 32 215 ± 27 0.014 209 ± 30
LDL-Chol (mg/dL)† 105 ± 44 131 ± 31 0.194 126 ± 35
HDL-Chol (mg/dL)* 49 ± 17 56 ± 10 0.157 55 ± 12
Triacylglycerol (mg/dL)† 240 ± 374 158 ± 95 0.343 175 ± 182
Glucose (mg/dL)† 114 ± 18 114 ± 24 0.805 114 ± 23
Hemoglobin A1C (%)† 5.0 ± 0.3 5.4 ± 0.7 0.120 5.3 ± 0.6
Active ghrelin (fmol/mL)† 3.5 ± 5.7 1.7 ± 4.6 0.614 2.0 ± 4.8
Desacyl ghrelin (fmol/mL)† 133.2 ± 161.2 62.0 ± 107.2 0.331 76.3 ± 120.6
Leptin (pg/mL)† 1692 ± 1903 2574 ± 2134 0.201 2398 ± 2093
Energy (kcal)* 2206 ± 473 2188 ± 556 0.937 2191 ± 534
Protein (g)* 75.6 ± 14.9 76.8 ± 23.0 0.892 76.6 ± 21.4
Fat (g)* 64.7 ± 15.0 67.1 ± 23.5 0.792 66.6 ± 21.9
Carbohydrate (g)* 310.2 ± 122.8 308.6 ± 93.1 0.969 308.9 ± 97.7
Salt (g)* 11.3 ± 3.3 12.0 ± 3.8 0.648 11.9 ± 3.7
Soluble dietary fiber (g)† 3.0 ± 0.7 3.4 ± 1.6 0.680 3.4 ± 1.5
Insoluble dietary fiber (g)* 12.0 ± 3.0 11.1 ± 4.0 0.599 11.3 ± 3.8
Total dietary fiber (g)* 16.7 ± 6.4 15.9 ± 7.0 0.256 16.0 ± 6.8
Green and yellow vegetable (g)† 115.0 ± 102.0 92.0 ± 74.0 0.726 96.6 ± 79.2
Other vegetable (g)* 240.1 ± 128.5 182.1 ± 119.8 0.267 193.7 ± 121.9
Total vegetable (g)* 355.1 ± 156.1 274.1 ± 168.1 0.256 290.3 ± 166.8
  1. Data shows mean ± S.D.
  2. Abbreviations: BMI Body mass index, BFP Body fat percentage, SBP Systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, T-Chol Total cholesterol, LDL-Chol Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-Chol high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.
  3. *p stands for the difference between the control and intervention groups at baseline parameters analyzed by the independent sample t test. †p stands for the difference between the control and intervention groups at baseline parameters analyzed by the Mann–Whitney test.
  4. Difference was considered significant at p < 0.05.