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Table 3 Change in blood parameters

From: Short-term intake of a Japanese-style healthy lunch menu contributes to prevention and/or improvement in metabolic syndrome among middle-aged men: a non-randomized controlled trial

    Intervention group
Characteristics   Control group (n = 7) p value Intake frequency of <50% ile (n = 12) p value Intake frequency of ≥50% ile (n = 16) p value
  Baseline 185 ± 32   222 ± 26   211 ± 27  
T-Chol (mg/dL)    0.191*   0.229*   0.006*
  After 3 months 199 ± 40   215 ± 28   199 ± 22  
  Baseline 105 ± 44   136 ± 30   127 ± 31  
LDL-Chol (mg/dL)    0.292*   0.437*   0.010*
  After 3 months 109 ± 45   132 ± 26   116 ± 25  
  Baseline 49 ± 17   53 ± 7   59 ± 11  
HDL-Chol (mg/dL)    0.522*   0.287*   0.073*
  After 3 months 49 ± 16   51 ± 8   56 ± 15  
  Baseline 240 ± 374   208 ± 116   121 ± 55  
Triacylglycerol (mg/dL)    0.173†   0.136†   0.408†
  After 3 months 289 ± 436   181 ± 67   115 ± 51  
  Baseline 113 ± 18   108 ± 19   118 ± 28  
Glucose (mg/dL)    0.735†   0.583†   0.255†
  After 3 months 112 ± 21   107 ± 16   111 ± 18  
  Baseline 5.0 ± 0.3   5.3 ± 0.5   5.5 ± 0.8  
Hemoglobin A1C (%)    0.041†   0.033†   0.529†
  After 3 months 5.1 ± 0.2   5.4 ± 0.5   5.5 ± 0.7  
  Baseline 3.5 ± 5.7   1.4 ± 2.0   1.9 ± 5.9  
Active ghrelin (fmol/mL)    0.128†   0.008†   .001†
  After 3 months 6.4 ± 7.4   3.8 ± 3.9   5.3 ± 8.4  
  Baseline 133.2 ± 161.2   41.6 ± 49.0   77.4 ± 135.4  
Desacyl ghrelin (fmol/mL)    1.000†   0.002†   0.001†
  After 3 months 108.0 ± 67.7   101.4 ± 89.3   115.7 ± 180.7  
  Baseline 1692 ± 1903   3611 ± 2786   1797 ± 999  
Leptin (pg/mL)    0.074*   0.001*   0.000†
  After 3 months 308 ± 219   610 ± 391   313 ± 158  
  1. Data shows mean ± S.D. Abbreviations: T-Chol Total cholesterol, LDL-Chol Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-Chol high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. *p stands for the difference between the baseline parameters and the parameters after 3 months analyzed by the paired t-test. †p stands for the difference between the baseline parameters and the parameters after 3 months analyzed by Wilcoxon’s signed rank test. Difference was considered significant at p < 0.05.