GT3 on RANKL and OPG gene expression. The effect of accumulated GT3 on expression of RANKL (A) and OPG (B) gene stimulated by db-cAMP in bone tissues (spine and femur). Excipent (CON and CON + db-cAMP groups) or GT3 (100 mg/kg body weight, GT3 and GT3+ db-cAMP groups) with PEG-400 emulsion were subcutaneously injected on day 0. One hour before mice were sacrificed at the time point of the indicated in figures, mice were injected intraperitoneally with db-cAMP (100 mg/kg body weight, CON + db-cAMP and G + db-cAMP groups) in a total volume of 100 μL or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, CON and GT3 groups). Expression in other groups was normalized to expression in CON group. Each bar represents the mean ± STDEV of eight mice. *, P < 0.05 by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post hoc test.