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Table 2 Effects of esterified sterols and stanols on LDL cholesterol and cholesterol absorption.

From: Plant sterols: factors affecting their efficacy and safety as functional food ingredients

Reference Products Vehicle Subject Condition: Starting mean TC mM(range) Daily Dose g Free sterol/stanol Equivalents #Servings /d Outcome: Where possible, Placebo-adjusted % decrease LDL is given = % decrease with sterol (To vs Tf) % decrease with placebo (To vs Tf)
[32] D1 Mayonnaise 11 M, 4 W >6.0 0.8 2.0 Habitual usage ↓ LDL 7.7%
↓ LDL 15.0%
[102] D1 Spread rapeseed 153 M&W 5.9–5.9 1.8 or 2.6 3 ↓ LDL 10.2%
[25] C2 (66% esterified), D1-2, C3, C5 Spread 100 <8.0 3.3 D1-2
3.3 C2
1.5 C3
1.5 C5
2 ↓ LDL 13%
↓ LDL 13%
↔ LDL
↔ LDL
[178] CD1 Spread 23 W 5.5–8.0 2.4, 3.2, 3.2   ↓ LDL 8–10%
↑ HDL 5–6%
[104] D2
D1-2
Spread, low fat diet 20 M, 35 W 6.1–6.6 2.2
2.3
  ↓ LDL 13.7%
↓ LDL 8.6 %
[104] C2 Spread 42 M, 58 W 5.2(2.7–7.4) 0.8
1.6
3.2
2 ↓ LDL 6.2 %
↓ LDL 9.2 %
↓ LDL 9.8%
[76] C2
D1
Spread 34 M&W 4.8–7.0 2.0 2 ↓ LDL 10.4%
↓ LDL 12.7%
[37] D1-2 Spread 14 M, 8 W 6.9(5.0–8.5) 0.8
1.6
2.4
3.0
2–3 ↓ LDL 1.7%
↓ LDL 5.6%
↓ LDL 9.7%
↓ LDL 10.4%
[98] D1-2 Spread 105 6.0–6.6.1 2.0
3.0
2
3
↓ LDL 8.9%
↓ LDL 6.7%
[77] C1
D1
Spread 15 M 6.4–6.5(6.0–10.0) 1.8
1.8
2–3 ↓ LDL 13.4%, ↓ C-abs 36.2%
↓ LDL 6.4%, ↓ C-abs 25.9 %
[179] C2, D1-2 Spread 5 M, 2 W Illeostomy 1.5   ↓ C-abs 38–39%
[99] D2
D1-2
Spread 41 M, 71 W 5.0–5.1 3.8
4.0
3 ↓ LDL 12.6%
↓ LDL 1.6%
[96] D1-2 Spread 11 M, 28 W 4.9 M, 4.7 W 2.5-different # servings 1
3
↓ LDL 9.9
↓ LDL 10.2%
[38] C2 Spread, Step 1 diet 224 M&W 6.2 1.1
2.2
2 ↓ LDL 4.9%, ↓ TC 2.6%
↓ LDL 5.4%, ↓ TC 4.0%
[78] C (mainly 2) Spread 34 M, 28 W 7.2 (control) 6.5 (treatment) 2.5   ↓ LDL 10–15%
[73] C2 Beef 34 M 5.9 2.4 1 ↓ LDL 15%
[70] D Yoghurt 16 M, 44 W 5.1 3.0 3 ↓ LDL 14 %
[65] C Spread 25 M, 38 W 6.1 1.8 2 ↓ LDL 5.4%, ↓ TC 3.4%
[79] C (vegetable oil) Spread, Japanese basal diet 26 M, 27 W 5.5 1.8 2 ↓ LDL 9.2%, ↓ TC 5.8%
[80] C (vegetable oil) Spread 19 M, 31 W 6.0 2.1   ↓ LDL 12.3%, ↓ TC 8.9%
[180] D Spread 38 M, 22 W 6.1 (2 g group)
6.0 (3 g group)
2.0
3.0
2
3
↓ LDL 9.6%, ↓ TC 6.3%
↓ LDL 7.3%, ↓ TC 5.5%
[71] C2 Vegetable oil, partly filled milk 33 M <5.2 2.2 2 ↓ C-abs 57.4%
  1. See Table 1 for abbreviations.