30 kg/m2). 1064 were men and 698 women (20–89 years old). Adherence to Mediterranean diet was assessed through a diet-score that was based on a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Blood pressure was measured and also fasting glucose, insulin and blood lipids. Insulin sensitivity was also assessed by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) approach (glucose × insulin/22.5). Results Individuals with excess bodyweight in the highest tertile of diet score, were more insulin sensitive than those in the lowest tertile (11.4% lower HOMA, p = 0.06), had 13% lower levels of total cholesterol (p = 0.001) and 3 mmHg decrease of systolic blood pressure levels (p < 0.001), when adjusted for age, sex and BMI. Multivariate analysis after taking into account several confounders demonstrated that insulin sensitivity, total cholesterol and systolic blood pressure were independently but only modestly correlated with Mediterranean diet in people with excess bodyweight. Conclusion Adherence to Mediterranean diet is modeslty associated with a better insulin sensitivity, lower levels of total cholesterol and lower levels of systolic blood pressure in overweight and obese subjects. This may suggest that compared to general population, the beneficial effect of this diet in cardiovascular system of excess body weight people is limited."/>
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Table 3 Results from multi-adjusted analysis for the evaluation of the Mediterranean diet (independent) on blood lipids, glycemic control indices and blood pressure levels.

From: Mediterranean diet and insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and blood pressure levels, in overweight and obese people; The Attica study

Dependent variable b-coefficient ± SE* R2 with/without the diet score in the model p
Model 1: Insulin (μU/mL) -0.17 ± 0.1 0.22/0.20 0.27
Model 2: HOMA-R -0.26 ± 0.2 0.38/0.33 0.09
Model 3: Total cholesterol (mg/dl) -0.30 ± 0.1 0.62/0.54 0.05
Model 4: HDL-C (mg/dl) -0.04 ± 0.1 0.08/0.07 0.96
Model 5: Triglycerides (mg/dl) 0.55 ± 0.8 0.14/0.12 0.51
Model 6: Systolic BP (mmHg) -0.09 ± 0.1 0.51/0.47 0.08
Model 7: Diastolic BP (mmHg) 0.08 ± 0.2 0.10/0.08 0.51
  1. *Independent variables also included in the model are: age, sex, co-morbidities (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia) and special treatment (antidiabetic drugs for model 1, 2, lipids lowering agents for models 3, 4, 5, antihypertensive drugs for models 6, 7), physical activity, years of school, waist-to-hip ratio, cigarette smoking and BMI.