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Table 2 Components in bovine milk and their chances to be modified according to feeding strategies, substrates involved in their synthesis and feeding strategies that may be used

From: Bovine milk in human nutrition – a review

Milk component Possibility for modification1 Substrates involved in synthesis Feeding strategies
Fat Moderate ↓Acetic-and butyric acid for de novo synthesis High intake and proportion of concentrates
   ↓Long unsaturated FA High intake and proportion of unsaturated fatty acids
Saturated fatty acids Minor to moderate ↓Acetic-and butyric acid for de novo synthesis. Low intake and proportion of roughages
   ↓Long saturated FA Low proportion saturated/unsaturated fatty acids
Oleic acid Moderate ↑Oleic acid High intake/proportion of oilic acid
   ↑Stearic acid High intake/proportion of stearic acid
   ↑Stearic acid High intake/proportion of polyunsaturated C18-acids Pasture
CLA Considerable ↑CLA High intake/proportion of linoleic acid.
   ↑Vaccenic acid High intake/proportion of unsaturated FA. Pasture
Vaccenic acid Considerable ↓Vaccenic acid Low intake of oleic- and linolenic acid
Ratio omega 6/3 Moderate ↓Omega 6:3 FA High intake/proportion of linolenic acid. Pasture
Protein Minor ↑Energy supply High intake of diet with relatively low content of fat, but high energy concentration
   ↑Amino acid supply Favourable conditions for microbial protein synthesis in the rumen. High intake/proportion of dietary by-pass protein
Calcium Minor   
Magnesium Minor   
Zinc Minor   
Iodine Considerable   Supplementation
Selenium Considerable   Supplementation
Vitamin E Considerable Vitamin E Pasture, well preserved silages, concentrates with naturally high content, mineral supplementation
Carotene/Vitamin A Considerable Carotene/Vitamin A Pasture, well preserved silages, concentrates with naturally high content, mineral supplementation
Folate Minor   
Riboflavin Minor   
Vitamin B12 Minor   
  1. 1Minor; ≈ < 25 % change. Moderate; ≈ 25–100 % change. Considerable; ≈ > 100 % change.