Chronic mild stress induced depressive-like behavior in rats. The behavioral tests were conducted after 28-day chronic mild stress. (a) sucrose preference, (b) total water intake, (c) immobility in the forced swim test, (d) locomotor activity in the open field test, (e) bodyweight, (f) food intake. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 8 per group). Differences between control and CMS were assessed using Tukey’s post hoc test. **P < 0.01 compared with control rats. CMS, chronic mild stress.