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Table 1 Characteristics of study population by urinary albumin excretion status

From: Discordant associations of lipid parameters with albuminuria and chronic kidney disease: a population-based study

  Normal urinary albumin excretion Low-grade albuminuria Increased urinary albumin excretion P for trend
n ( % ) 6817 (70.1) 2274 (23.4) 639 (6.6)  
ACR (mg/g) 6.7 (5.0–8.4) 14.7 (12.5–19.0)* 53.3 (37.8–94.6)*# <0.0001
Age (years) 55.5 ± 7.7 56.7 ± 8.4* 58.0 ± 9.6*# < 0.0001
Male [n (%)] 2097 (30.8) 501 (22.0) 188 (29.4) < 0.0001
BMI (kg/m2) 23.4 ± 3.2 24.0 ± 3.8* 24.7 ± 3.7*# < 0.0001
WC (cm) 81.1 ± 9.2 82.3 ± 9.9* 85.1 ± 10.4*# < 0.0001
SBP (mmHg) 124.2 ± 15.6 129.0 ± 16.9* 135.0 ± 18.9*# < 0.0001
DBP (mmHg) 74.6 ± 9.5 76.4 ± 10.4* 78.9 ± 11.0* < 0.0001
Current smoker [n (%)] 703 (10.6) 164 (7.4)* 74 (11.8) # 0.072
Current drinker [n (%)] 226 (3.4) 67 (3.1) 23 (3.7) 0.817
Physical activity (MET-h/week) 21.0 (10.5–45.0) 21.0 (10.5–42.0) 21.5 (10.5–42.0) 0.831
TG (mg/dL) 108.8 (79.6–157.5) 115.9 (82.3–169.9)* 137.2 (96.5–194.7)*# < 0.0001
TC (mg/dL) 199.6 ± 47.4 203.6 ± 48.7* 202.4 ± 52.0 0.002
HDL-C (mg/dL) 51.2 ± 13.9 51.1 ± 13.8 47.8 ± 12.8*# < 0.0001
LDL-C (mg/dL) 120.8 ± 36.5 122.2 ± 37.8 122.6 ± 39.0 0.067
Non-HDL-C (mg/dl) 148.4 ± 41.8 152.4 ± 43.2* 154.6 ± 46.3* < 0.0001
Non-HDL-C/HDL-C 2.9 (2.3–3.6) 3.0 (2.4–3.8)* 3.3 (2.6–4.0)*# < 0.0001
TG/HDL-C 2.2 (1.5–3.5) 2.3 (1.5–3.7)* 3.0 (1.9–4.5)*# < 0.0001
FPG (mmol/L) 5.4 (5.0–5.9) 5.5 (5.0–6.1)* 5.6 (5.1–6.7)*# < 0.0001
HbA1C (%) 6.0 ± 0.7 6.2 ± 1.0* 6.5 ± 1.5*# < 0.0001
HOMA-IR 1.67 (1.19–2.39) 1.88 (1.29–2.80)* 2.23 (1.45–3.48)*# < 0.0001
SCr (μmol/L) 67.0 (60.8–76.0) 65.0 (59.5–72.9)* 69.1 (60.9–81.1)*# 0.531
eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2) 110.9 (100.0–123.8) 111.5 (100.1–124.8) 106.4 (94.2–122.0)*# < 0.0001
Previous CVD (%) 205 (3.0) 78 (3.4) 35 (5.5)*# 0.003
Previous hypertension (%) 893 (13.1) 486 (21.4)* 198 (31.0)*# < 0.0001
Previous diabetes (%) 313 (4.6) 201 (8.8)* 90 (14.1)*# < 0.0001
Previous dyslipidemia (%) 325 (4.8) 124 (5.5) 49 (7.7)*# 0.002
  1. 1. Data were means ± SD or medians (interquartile ranges) for skewed variables or numbers (proportions) for categorical variables.
  2. 2. P for trend was calculated for the linear regression analysis tests across the groups. P values were for the ANOVA or χ2 analyses across the groups.
  3. 3. *P < 0.05 compared with normal urinary albumin excretion group; #P < 0.05 compared with low-grade albuminuria group.
  4. 4. ACR, urinary albumin to creatinine ratio; BMI, body mass index; WC, waist circumference; SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; TG, triglycerides; TC, total cholesterol; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; FPG, fasting plasma glucose; HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; SCr, serum creatinine; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; CVD, cardiovascular diseases.