Skip to main content


Fig. 1 | Lipids in Health and Disease

Fig. 1

From: Detection and treatment of omega-3 fatty acid deficiency in psychiatric practice: Rationale and implementation

Fig. 1

Comparison of mean EPA + DHA levels in adult patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) residing in the U.S. (erythrocytes, n = 768) [119], first-episode bipolar disorder (BD) (erythrocytes, n = 40) [130] and adolescent MDD (erythrocytes, n = 20) [134] patients residing in the Cincinnati area, psychiatric patients admitted to the inpatient clinic at The Lindner Center of HOPE, Cincinnati (whole blood, n = 131), normative values from a cohort subjects residing in the U.S. (whole blood, n = 27,414,, and adults residing in Japan (erythrocytes, n = 456) [124]. Proposed ‘risk zones’ for sudden cardiac death derived from prospective longitudinal studies are indicated [118]. Note that psychiatric patients exhibit EPA + DHA levels that are similar to patients with ACS and place them at high risk for sudden cardiac arrest. It is proposed that similar ‘risk zones’ be adopted in psychiatric practice to identify patients requiring corrective LCn-3 fatty acid supplementation

Back to article page