Skip to main content

Table 2 Characteristics of the study subgroups following the run-in period (day 0), prior to receiving echium oil or linseed oil mixture1

From: Consumption of echium oil increases EPA and DPA in blood fractions more efficiently compared to linseed oil in humans

  Study 1 Echium oil Study 2 Linseed oil mixture
Subgroups EOI (n = 20) EOII (n = 20) EOIII (n = 19) LOI (n = 20) LOII (n = 20) LOIII (n = 19)
Sex, f/m 10/10 11/9 9/10 10/10 10/10 10/9
BMI group (kg/m2) 18–25 18–25 >25 18–25 18–25 >25
Age group (years) 20–35 49–69 49–69 20–35 49–69 49–69
Repeated participation (%)     40 90 80
Age (years) 28.1 ± 2.86b 58.8 ± 5.73a 61.2 ± 6.26a 25.0 ± 3.43b 59.0 ± 5.56a 61.1 ± 7.28a
Body mass index (kg/m2) 22.0 ± 2.34b 23.5 ± 2.40b 30.1 ± 3.30a 22.3 ± 2.24b 23.2 ± 2.27b 29.5 ± 3.26a
Waist circumference (cm) 80.3 ± 9.10c 87.2 ± 9.17b 104 ± 6.75a‡ 80.7 ± 4.95c 86.3 ± 7.71b 99.4 ± 7.19a
Systolic BP (mm Hg) 125 ± 10.4b* 135 ± 19.9ab 141 ± 15.6a‡ 133 ± 17.3b 148 ± 20.2b 154 ± 24.0a
Diastolic BP (mm Hg) 82.2 ± 8.9b 90.1 ± 12.3a 91.2 ± 7.90a 82.4 ± 6.68a 89.5 ± 10.7a 85.3 ± 19.8a
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.52 ± 0.68b 5.82 ± 1.24a 6.30 ± 1.02a 4.43 ± 0.80b 5.58 ± 1.32a 5.84 ± 1.09a
HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.43 ± 0.30a 1.58 ± 0.47a 1.33 ± 0.32a 1.39 ± 0.27a 1.44 ± 0.38a 1.30 ± 0.33a
LDL-C (mmol/L) 2.54 ± 0.61b 3.54 ± 0.89a 3.95 ± 0.90a 2.48 ± 0.75b 3.36 ± 0.98a 3.70 ± 0.97a
LDL-C/HDL-C 1.87 ± 0.67b 2.37 ± 0.66b 3.08 ± 0.75a 1.86 ± 0.70b 2.42 ± 0.70a 2.90 ± 0.83a
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 0.89 ± 0.36b 1.14 ± 0.42b 1.82 ± 0.88a‡ 0.97 ± 0.39a 1.31 ± 0.94a 1.39 ± 0.51a
Oxidized LDL (mmol/L) 67.7 ± 12.7c* 80.3 ± 11.4b* 92.9 ± 13.2a* 49.9 ± 18.0b 60.8 ± 15.2a 66.6 ± 14.2a
High sensitivity CRP (mg/L) 0.68 ± 0.62a 1.35 ± 2.03a 2.12 ± 2.41a 1.32 ± 1.60a 1.25 ± 1.50a 1.64 ± 1.43a
Insulin (mU/L) 6.03 ± 2.35b 9.75 ± 5.90a 11.6 ± 4.77a 6.22 ± 2.57b 7.96 ± 4.92a 10.8 ± 6.78a
  1. 1Values are means ± SD. C cholesterol. EO echium oil, LO linseed oil mixture; I, age 20–35 years and BMI 18–25 kg/m2; II, age 49–69 years and BMI 18–25 kg/m2; III, age 49–69 years and BMI >25 kg/m2. P values were analyzed using the generalized linear mixed model ANOVA
  2. abcWithin one oil treatment, means within a row with different superscript letters are significantly different between subgroups (P ≤ 0.05)
  3. *Mean values are significantly different between the respective EO and LO subgroups (I, II, III) (*P ≤ 0.05, P 0.05 < 0.10)