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Table 3 Percent change of FA in plasma, RBC, and PBMC in echium oil vs. linseed oil groups and in control groups after 8-weeks treatment1

From: Consumption of echium oil increases EPA and DPA in blood fractions more efficiently compared to linseed oil in humans

Change of FA, % Study 1 Echium oil (n = 59) Study 2 Linseed oil mixture (n = 59) Treatment effect EO vs. LO P2 Control groups
Fish oil (n = 19) Olive oil (n = 18)
Plasma       
 n-3 PUFA ALA 230 ± 13b† 314 ± 20a† 0.001 −8 ± 4c 14 ± 5c†
  SDA 789 ± 69a† 159 ± 13b† <0.001 59 ± 19b† 22 ± 14b
  ETA 406 ± 32a† 124 ± 10b† <0.001 53 ± 12b† 27 ± 10b†
  EPA 168 ± 8b† 67 ± 6c† <0.001 646 ± 75a† 4 ± 6d
  DPA 68 ± 4b† 31 ± 3c† <0.001 113 ± 13a† −1 ± 2d
  DHA −3 ± 3b −11 ± 2b† 0.008 39 ± 8a† −5 ± 3b
 n-6 PUFA LA −9 ± 1b† 3 ± 1a† <0.001 −13 ± 2b† −8 ± 1b†
  GLA 276 ± 23a† −11 ± 3b† <0.001 −16 ± 4b† 7 ± 6b
  DGLA 67 ± 5a† −10 ± 2bc† <0.001 −26 ± 4c† 6 ± 3b
  AA 14 ± 2a† −1 ± 2b <0.001 3 ± 3ab 0 ± 3b
  22:5n-6 −20 ± 3b† −9 ± 3b† 0.006 −38 ± 7b† 12 ± 5a
RBC       
 n-3 PUFA ALA 156 ± 32b† 201 ± 9a† <0.001 −12 ± 5c 8 ± 3c†
  SDA 405 ± 54a† 135 ± 22b† <0.001 6 ± 13c 49 ± 35b
  ETA 243 ± 22a† 106 ± 7b† <0.001 24 ± 6c 9 ± 4c
  EPA 85 ± 12b† 32 ± 4c† <0.001 351 ± 35a† −10 ± 3d†
  DPA 32 ± 8b† 12 ± 2c† <0.001 75 ± 16a† −4 ± 2d
  DHA −4 ± 2b† −10 ± 2b† 0.15 10 ± 9a −9 ± 2b†
 n-6 PUFA LA 11 ± 3a 1 ± 1b <0.001 −11 ± 4b −4 ± 1b†
  GLA 144 ± 16a† 0 ± 4b <0.001 1 ± 2b 7 ± 6b
  DGLA 48 ± 9a† −5 ± 1b† <0.001 −15 ± 3b 3 ± 1b
  AA 17 ± 3a† −1 ± 1b <0.001 2 ± 4b 0 ± 1b
  22:5n-6 −2 ± 4a −4 ± 1a† 0.43 −29 ± 5b† 6 ± 2a
PBMC       
 n-3 PUFA ALA 147 ± 20b† 368 ± 28a† <0.001 70 ± 43bc 13 ± 8c
  SDA 424 ± 78a† 103 ± 34b <0.001 −2 ± 24b 47 ± 45b
  ETA 388 ± 35a† 81 ± 5b† <0.001 38 ± 6b† 27 ± 19b
  EPA 97 ± 9b† 45 ± 5c† 0.005 564 ± 57a† −1 ± 4d
  DPA 42 ± 5b† 27 ± 2c† 0.006 94 ± 8a† 3 ± 2c
  DHA −20 ± 3b† −15 ± 1b† 0.12 2 ± 5a −4 ± 2ab
 n-6 PUFA LA 8 ± 2a 5 ± 1a 0.42 6 ± 3a −7 ± 2b†
  GLA 128 ± 14a† −1 ± 4b <0.001 12 ± 15b 7 ± 4b
  DGLA 47 ± 17a† −1 ± 1b† <0.001 −15 ± 3b† 6 ± 2b
  AA −2 ± 3a −2 ± 1a† 0.92 −10 ± 2b† 2 ± 1a
  22:5n-6 −17 ± 6a† −8 ± 2a† 0.17 −48 ± 3b† 8 ± 4a
  1. 1Values are means ± SEM; adjusted means not shown. Change is from day 0 to day 56. EO echium oil, ETA 20:4n-3, eicosatetraenoic acid, LO linseed oil mixture, RBC red blood cells, PBMC peripheral blood mononuclear cells. P values were analyzed using the generalized linear mixed model ANCOVA with sex, age, BMI, baseline value as covariates
  2. 2 P values for the treatment effect including only EO and LO groups
  3. abcMeans with different superscript letters are significantly different between all treatments (P ≤ 0.05)
  4. Within one oil treatment, means are significantly different between day 0 and day 56 (repeated measures; P ≤ 0.05)