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Table 4 Final EPA, DPA, and DHA in plasma, RBC, and PBMC in echium oil vs. linseed oil groups and in control groups after 8-weeks treatment1

From: Consumption of echium oil increases EPA and DPA in blood fractions more efficiently compared to linseed oil in humans

% of total FAME Study 1 Echium oil (n = 59) Study 2 Linseed oil mixture (n = 59) Treatment effect EO vs. LO P 2 Control groups
Fish oil (n = 19) Olive oil (n = 18)
Plasma      
 EPA 1.63 ± 0.51b 1.07 ± 0.36c <0.001 3.91 ± 0.99a 0.55 ± 0.20d
 DPA 0.72 ± 0.14b 0.54 ± 0.11c <0.001 0.84 ± 0.23a 0.43 ± 0.11d
 DHA 1.49 ± 0.42bd 1.39 ± 0.34c 0.009 1.93 ± 0.55a 1.29 ± 0.39cd
RBC      
 EPA 1.51 ± 0.33b 1.11 ± 0.31c 0.001 2.05 ± 0.28a 0.67 ± 0.23d
 DPA 2.68 ± 0.38ab 2.44 ± 0.36ab 0.049 2.94 ± 0.37a 2.07 ± 0.33c
 DHA 3.80 ± 0.83ab 3.62 ± 0.74ab 0.35 4.15 ± 0.73a 3.39 ± 0.89b
PBMC      
 EPA 0.69 ± 0.21b 0.54 ± 0.14c <0.001 1.91 ± 0.45a 0.30 ± 0.07d
 DPA 2.37 ± 0.55b 2.11 ± 0.37c <0.001 3.28 ± 0.38a 1.68 ± 0.23d
 DHA 1.38 ± 0.39d 1.53 ± 0.34b 0.003 1.71 ± 0.28ac 1.51 ± 0.33bc
  1. 1Values are means ± SD; adjusted means are not shown. EO, echium oil, LO linseed oil mixture, PBMC peripheral blood mononuclear cells, RBC red blood cells. P values were analyzed using the generalized linear mixed model ANCOVA with sex, age, BMI, baseline value as covariates
  2. 2 P values for the treatment effect including only EO and LO groups
  3. abcMeans with different superscript letters are significantly different between all treatment groups (P ≤ 0.05)