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Table 5 Clinical markers in echium oil and linseed oil groups before and after 8-weeks treatment1

From: Consumption of echium oil increases EPA and DPA in blood fractions more efficiently compared to linseed oil in humans

   Study 1 Echium oil (n = 59)   Study 2 Linseed oil mixture (n = 59)   Treatment effect EO vs. LO P 2
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) Day 0 5.53 ± 1.25   5.27 ± 1.24   
  Day 56 5.22 ± 1.17 *** 5.08 ± 1.20   0.59
HDL-C (mmol/L) Day 0 1.45 ± 0.38   1.38 ± 0.33   
  Day 56 1.37 ± 0.42 *** 1.58 ± 0.37 *** <0.001
LDL-C (mmol/L) Day 0 3.33 ± 0.99   3.16 ± 1.03   
  Day 56 3.03 ± 0.87 *** 3.05 ± 0.99   0.056
LDL-C/HDL-C Day 0 2.43 ± 0.84   2.38 ± 0.84   
  Day 56 2.36 ± 0.88   2.00 ± 0.70 *** <0.001
Triglycerides (mmol/L) Day 0 1.28 ± 0.70   1.22 ± 0.68   
  Day 56 1.13 ± 0.59 *** 1.12 ± 0.62   0.66
Oxidized LDL (mmol/L) Day 0 80.1 ± 16.0   58.9 ± 17.1   
  Day 56 75.8 ± 14.9 *** 54.0 ± 17.7 * <0.001
Insulin (mU/L) Day 0 9.07 ± 5.07   8.26 ± 5.26   
  Day 56 6.25 ± 4.54 *** 7.38 ± 3.69 * 0.011
  1. 1Values are means ± SD; adjusted means are not shown. C cholesterol, EO echium oil, LO linseed oil mixture. P values were analyzed using the generalized linear mixed model ANCOVA with sex, age, BMI, baseline value as covariates
  2. 2 P values for the treatment effect including only EO and LO groups
  3. *Within one oil treatment, means are significantly different between day 0 and day 56 (repeated measures; ***P ≤ 0.001; *P ≤ 0.05)