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Table 1 Demographic and biochemical parameters of the study subjects

From: High apolipoprotein M serum levels correlate with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  COPD Controls P value
Subjects, n 110 110  
Demographics    
 Age, years 67 ± 10 67 ± 10 0.823
 Sex, % male 86 86 0.847
 Body mass index, kg/m2 22.2 ± 2.3 22.2 ± 2.3 0.954
 Smoking history, % 64 35 <0.001
GOLD stages, n    
 GOLD I/II 32   
 GOLD III 39   
 GOLD IV 39   
Comorbidities, %    
 CAD 28 6 <0.001
 Hypertension 25 11 0.008
 Diabetes mellitus 5 1 0.098
Treatment, %    
 Prednisone 27 0 <0.001
 Aminophylline 23 0 <0.001
 β-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist 22 7 0.017
 Anticholinergics 23 0 <0.001
Lung function    
 FEV1% predicted 43.81 ± 19.77 92.34 ± 8.29 <0.001
 FEV1/FVC 49.44 ± 15.96 97.48 ± 3.73 <0.001
Lipids profile    
 Triglycerides, mmol/L 1.17 ± 0.67 1.43 ± 1.11 0.036
 Total cholesterol, mmol/L 4.16 ± 0.82 4.49 ± 0.76 0.003
 HDL-C, mmol/L 1.15 ± 0.30 1.31 ± 0.26 <0.001
 LDL-C, mmol/L 2.50 ± 0.77 2.61 ± 0.70 0.285
 Apolipoprotein A, g/L 1.36 ± 0.29 1.46 ± 0.27 0.011
 Apolipoprotein B, g/L 0.89 ± 0.22 0.94 ± 0.27 0.122
 Apolipoprotein M, mg/L 23.08 ± 9.54 17.02 ± 4.74 <0.001
 Lipoprotein(a), g/L 163.9 ± 2.4 99.0 ± 9.3 <0.001
Inflammatory factors    
 Hs-CRP, mg/L 11.52 ± 3.97 1.47 ± 2.77 <0.001
 Pentraxin-3, ng/L 1.28 ± 2.66 0.96 ± 2.05 0.002
  1. Data are mean ± standard deviation. Values of triglycerides, lipoprotein(a), and hs-CRP were converted into a logarithmic form before analysis. The p-values refer to comparisons between the COPD and control groups
  2. GOLD Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CAD coronary artery disease, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hs-CRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, FEV 1 forced expiratory volume in one second, FVC forced vital capacity, NS non-significant