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Table 2 Nutrient dietary intake at baseline and after 6 months of dietary intervention

From: Effects of sardine-enriched diet on metabolic control, inflammation and gut microbiota in drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes: a pilot randomized trial

  Baseline   6 Months    
  Sardine group (n = 12) Control group (n = 11)   Sardine group (n = 12) Control group (n = 11)    
    P valuea    P value b P within SG c P within CG c
Energy (kcal/day) 1829.5 ± 129.9 1758.5 ± 150.7 0.74 1626.2 ± 89.2 1687.2 ± 128.6 0.30 0.02 0.53
Carbohydrates (g/day) 163.8 ± 13.9 146.8 ± 11.7 0.83 141.6 ± 10.8 136.3 ± 14.1 0.82 0.18 0.18
Protein (g/day) 92.0 ± 6.7 87.3 ± 7.9 0.83 83.9 ± 4.8 83.5 ± 5.0 0.85 0.24 0.42
Fat (g/day) 88.3 ± 4.8 84.4 ± 8.1 0.41 79.2 ± 4.5 83.7 ± 5.8 0.27 0.01 0.86
SFAd (g/day) 25.3 ± 2.7 22.6 ± 3.0 0.41 18.6 ± 1.6 21.6 ± 2.2 0.11 0.003 0.72
MUFAe (g/day) 44.8 ± 2.3 42.0 ± 3.3 0.26 40.6 ± 1.9 43.3 ± 2.8 0.25 0.07 0.66
PUFAf (g/day) 11.4 ± 0.6 12.4 ± 1.6 0.93 13.0 ± 1.2 12.0 ± 1.5 0.21 0.21 0.79
EPAg + DHAh (g/day) 0.4 ± 0.1 0.2 ± 0.02 0.15 3.2 ± 0.1 0.4 ± 0.1 <0.001 0.002 0.16
Total n-3 PUFAi (g/day) 1.6 ± 0.2 1.5 ± 0.2 0.60 4.7 ± 0.2 1.3 ± 0.1 <0.001 0.002 0.12
Taurine (mg/day) 61.0 ± 10.9 53.6 ± 7.6 0.95 168.2 ± 9.4 58.7 ± 6.3 <0.001 0.002 0.53
Fat (% Energy) 44.4 ± 1.9 43.1 ± 1.6 0.53 43.8 ± 0.8 44.9 ± 0.9 0.60 0.58 0.25
SFA (% Energy) 12.3 ± 0.8 11.3 ± 0.8 0.49 10.2 ± 0.4 11.3 ± 0.5 0.06 0.03 0.97
MUFA (% Energy) 22.8 ± 1.4 21.9 ± 1.0 0.65 22.7 ± 0.9 23.8 ± 1.2 0.45 0.58 0.13
PUFA (% Energy) 5.8 ± 0.4 6.2 ± 0.4 0.75 7.1 ± 0.5 6.3 ± 0.4 0.01 0.04 0.72
Dietary fiber (g/day) 15.5 ± 1.3 18.9 ± 2.5 0.41 17.3 ± 1.2 15.1 ± 1.5 0.03 0.08 0.08
  1. Values are mean ± SE
  2. a Intergroup comparisons at baseline by Mann-Whitney’s U test
  3. b Differences between groups at 6 months adjusted for baseline values (ANCOVA)
  4. c Intragroup comparisons by Wilcoxon signed-rank test
  5. d SFA: saturated fatty acid
  6. e MUFA: monounsaturated fatty acid
  7. f PUFA: polysaturated fatty acid
  8. g EPA: eicosapentanoic acid
  9. h DHA: docosahexanoic acid
  10. i n-3 PUFA: omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid