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Table 3 EMFA composition at baseline and after 6-month dietary intervention

From: Effects of sardine-enriched diet on metabolic control, inflammation and gut microbiota in drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes: a pilot randomized trial

  Baseline   6 Months   
  Sardine group (n = 17) Control group (n = 15)   Sardine group (n = 17) Control group (n = 15)    
    P valuea    P value b P within SG c P within CGc
EPAd (%) 0.6 ± 0.1 0.7 ± 0.1 0.26 1.5 ± 0.2 0.9 ± 0.1 0.008 0.001 0.51
DHAe (%) 4.7 ± 0.2 5.1 ± 0.2 0.35 6.4 ± 0.3 5.5 ± 0.3 0.001 <0.001 0.11
Total n-3 PUFAsf (%) 6.8 ± 0.3 7.5 ± 0.3 0.19 11.6 ± 0.3 8.2 ± 0.5 <0.001 <0.001 0.11
O3Ig (%) 5.3 ± 0.3 5.8 ± 0.3 0.26 8.0 ± 0.4 6.4 ± 0.5 0.001 <0.001 0.20
AAh (%) 16.4 ± 0.5 17.2 ± 0.7 0.28 15.4 ± 0.5 17.1 ± 0.6 0.04 0.02 0.39
DHGLAi (%) 1.7 ± 0.1 1.7 ± 0.1 0.63 1.7 ± 0.1 1.7 ± 0.1 0.04 0.34 0.03
Total n-6 PUFAsj (%) 34.1 ± 0.9 34.8 ± 1.0 0.44 32.8 ± 0.9 34.6 ± 0.8 0.12 0.05 0.30
Total n-3 PUFAs + n-6 PUFAs (%) 40.9 ± 0.8 42.2 ± 1.1 0.17 44.4 ± 0.8 42.8 ± 0.7 0.02 <0.001 0.95
  1. Values are mean ± SE
  2. aIntergroup comparisons at baseline by Mann-Whitney’s U test
  3. b Differences between groups at 6 months adjusted for baseline values (ANCOVA)
  4. c Intragroup comparisons by Wilcoxon signed-rank test
  5. d EPA, eicosapentanoic acid
  6. e DHA, docosahexanoic acid
  7. f n-3 PUFAs: omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids
  8. g O3I: omega-3 index
  9. h AA: arachidonic acid
  10. i DHGLA: dihomo-γ-linolenic acid
  11. j n-6 PUFAs: omega 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids