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Table 2 Clinical characteristics of the study participants grouped by the number of metabolic syndrome components

From: Association between alpha-fetoprotein and metabolic syndrome in a Chinese asymptomatic population: a cross-sectional study

Variable No of components of MS P value
MS 0 MS 1 MS 2 MS 3 MS 4
n 1335 2598 2310 1179 333 <0.001
Age (yr) 43 (18–78) 44 (18–87) 47 (18–82) 51 (26–79) #*$ 52 (31–82) #*$ <0.001
Sex (M/F) 735/600 1296/1302 1356/954 621/558$ 201/132* <0.001
WC (cm) 77 (58–90) 80 (60–123) 88 (60–116) 90 (64–115) #*$ 92 (81–115) #*$ <0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 21.6 (15.6–25) 22.7 (15.9–36.9) 25.1 (17.4–36.7) 26.1 (17.3–35.6) #*$ 26.3 (22.9–32.3) #*$ <0.001
SBP (mmHg) 113 ± 9 119 ± 14 132 ± 17 140 ± 15#*$ 150 ± 14#*$ <0.001
DBP (mmHg) 69 ± 7 73 ± 10 81 ± 12 86 ± 10#*$ 90 ± 9#*$ <0.001
ALT (U/L) 15 (4–69) 17 (5–188) 20 (4–151) 24 (4–123) #*$ 30 (10–193) #*$ <0.001
AST (U/L) 18 (10–48) 19 (9–114) 20 (10–132) 21 (7–62) #*$ 23 (11–67) #*$ <0.001
γ-GT (U/L) 16 (3–377) 20 (5–306) 24 (4–429) 31 (8–816) #*$ 50 (10–485) #*$ <0.001
TG (mmol/L) 0.88 (0.31–1.69) 1.16 (0.3–9.68) 1.3 (0.32–17.1) 1.9 (0.8–16.09) #*$ 2.37 (0.81–13.76) #*$ <0.001
Tch (mmol/L) 4.65 (2.92–7.89) 4.69 (2.13–8.49) 4.71 (2.02–10.3) 4.86 (2.62–9) #*$ 5.18 (2.8–8.23) #*$ <0.001
HDL-c (mmol/L) 1.43 (1.03–2.7) 1.23 (0.57–2.86) 1.17 (0.62–2.27) 1.03 (0.58–2.4) #*$ 1.0 (0.67–2) #*$ <0.001
LDL-c (mmol/L) 2.59 (1.26–5.62) 2.59 (0.94–6.32) 2.6 (0.75–6.76) 2.66 (1–6.12) #*$ 2.69 (1.35–6.0) #*$ 0.001
FPG (mmol/L) 4.73 (3.72–5.57) 4.78 (3.64–13) 4.81 (3.45–16) 5 (3.87–17) #*$ 6 (4.44–14) #*$ <0.001
Cr (mmol/L) 61 (29–100) 67 (33–119) 71 (35–118) 76 (36–114) #*$ 72 (44–118) #*$ <0.001
HbA1c (%) 5.5 (3.5–6.1) 5.5 (4.4–10.8) 5.6 (4–11.6) 5.7 (4.2–13) #*$ 6.4 (4.7–13) #*$ <0.001
AFP (ng/ml) 2.3 (0.5–13.2) 2.5 (0.5–11.4) 2.5 (0.5–19.1) 2.7 (0.8–16.6) #*$ 2.7 (1.1–10.1) #*$ <0.001
Drinker (%) 13.8 15.3 19.9 27.6 #*$ 37.0#*$ <0.001
Smoker (%) 24.3 27.0 28.5 27.2 20.7 0.142
FLD (%) 12.1 22.5 45.5 63.6#*$ 60.7#*$ <0.001
  1. P-value: comparison among these five groups; # comparison vs. MS 0 group; * comparison vs. MS 1 group; $ comparison vs. MS 2 group; Δ comparison vs. MS 3 group. WC waist circumference, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, BMI body mass index, ALT Alanine aminotransferase, AST aspartate aminotransferase, γ-GT gamma-glutamyltransferase, TG triglycerides, Tch total cholesterol, HDL-c high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-c low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, FPG fasting plasma glucose, Cr creatinine, HbA1c hemoglobin A1c, AFP alpha-fetoprotein, FLD fatty liver disease