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Table 3 Summary of animal studies using LCMUFA concentrate oil (LCMUFA: 58~80%; n-3 PUFA: <0.1%)

From: Dietary marine-derived long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids and cardiovascular disease risk: a mini review

Ref. Animal model Diet Term Health outcomes of LCMUFA diet
(p < 0.05 vs. control)
[42] Diet-induced obese mice C57BL/6J (n = 10/group) Hight-fat diet
(42% energy from fat)
supplemented 5% LCMUFA or not (control)
6 weeks Plasma TC, LDL-C reduction;
Insulin resistance improvement;
Anti-inflammation (Decreased plasma resistin levels and inflammatory gene expressions);
Increase in n-3 PUFA and decrease in n-6 PUFA in liver
[43] Spontaneous Type II diabetic mice KKAy (n = 10/group) Chow diet
supplemented 4% LCMUFA or soybean oil (control)
8 weeks Plasma TC, FFA, insulin and leptin reduction;
Adipocyte size reduction;
Upregulation of Pparg family genes
[46] ApoE-KO mice (n = 13-15/group) Western diet
(42% energy from fat)
supplemented 5% LCMUFA or not (control)
12 weeks Plasma TC, LDL-C reduction;
Atherosclerotic lesion area reduction;
Anti-inflammation (Decreased macrophage and inflammatory gene expression in aorta);
Upregulation of PPAR signaling pathway in liver
[46] LDLR-KO mice (n = 12/group) Western diet
(42% energy from fat)
supplemented 2% LCMUFA, olive oil, or not (control)
12 weeks No change in plasma lipid levels;
Atherosclerotic lesion area reduction;
Anti-inflammation (Decreased plasma inflammatory cytokine levels and in aorta);
Upregulation of PPAR signaling pathway in liver;
Increase in n-3 PUFA and decrease in arachidonic acid (C20:4 n-6) in plasma and liver
[48] Diet-induced obese Wistar rats (n = 6/group) High-fat diet
(42% energy from fat)
supplemented 6.5% LCMUFA, n-3 PUFA, or not (control)
3 weeks No change in plasma lipid levels;
Stimulation of peroxisomal β-oxidation in liver;
Increase in n-3 PUFA and decrease in arachidonic acid (C20:4 n-6) in plasma and liver
  1. FFA free fatty acids, KO knockout, LCMUFA long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids, LDL-C LDL cholesterol, PPAR peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acids, TC total cholesterol