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Table 1 General and biochemical parameters in control mice and high-fat diet fed mice subjected to hydroxytyrosol (HT) supplementation

From: Hydroxytyrosol prevents reduction in liver activity of Δ-5 and Δ-6 desaturases, oxidative stress, and depletion in long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid content in different tissues of high-fat diet fed mice

  Groups
  Control diet (CD) High-fat diet (HFD)
  Saline (a) HT (b) Saline (c) HT (d)
A. General parameters
Initial body weight (g) 13.5 ± 0.6 14.0 ± 0.7 14.0 ± 0.5 13.2 ± 0.8
Final body weight (g) 34.4 ± 2.7c,d 36.2 ± 3.1c,d 46.8 ± 4.5a,b 42.5 ± 3.2a,b
Liver weight (g) 1.19 ± 0.2 1.21 ± 0.4 1.25 ± 0.3 1.24 ± 0.4
Liver weight (g)/ final body weight (g) ratio 0.034 ± 0.01c,d 0.033 ± 0.01c,d 0.026 ± 0.005a,b,d 0.029 ± 0.01a,b,c
B. Food and Energy intake
Food intake (g/day) 2.4 ± 0.5 2.3 ± 0.4 2.7 ± 0.6 2.6 ± 0.3
Energy intake (kcal/day) 9.22 ± 0.8c,d 8.84 ± 0.7c,d 14.2 ± 1.4a,b 13.6 ± 1.3a,b
C. Lipid parameters
Triacylglycerols (mg/dL) 130.5 ± 7.2c,d 120.6 ± 6.5c,d 180.6 ± 11.5a,b,d 156.3 ± 8.4a,b,c
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 73.5 ± 8.5c,d 68.7 ± 6.9c,d 126.5 ± 15.3a,b,d 103.6 ± 9.6a,b,c
LDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) 44.3 ± 3.8c,d 40.2 ± 3.3c,d 78.6 ± 6.5a,b,d 63.5 ± 5.4a,b,c
HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) 26.9 ± 3.4c,d 24.7 ± 2.9c,d 44.9 ± 4.8a,b 36.3 ± 5.7a,b
D. Insulin resistance
Fasting glucose (mg/dL) 123.5 ± 5.6c,d 119.4 ± 4.9c,d 235.5 ± 29.4a,b,d 184.6 ± 16.5a,b,c
Fasting insulin (units/mL) 5.47 ± 0.7c,d 5.19 ± 0.8c,d 18.4 ± 1.7a,b,d 12.2 ± 1.1a,b,c
HOMA 1.25 ± 0.3c.d 1.17 ± 0.2c,d 8.92 ± 1.0a,b,d 6.45 ± 0.6a,b,d
E. Serum transaminases
AST (U/L) 139.3 ± 17.8 142.7 ± 20.3 171.5 ± 28.5 148.6 ± 23
ALT (U/L) 78.6 ± 9.8 65.2 ± 6.4 80.2 ± 10.7 75.3 ± 5.6
  1. Values represent means ± SEM for 12–14 mice per experimental group. Significant differences between the groups are indicated by the letter identifying each group (one-way ANOVA and Newman-Keuls´ post-test; p < 0.05)