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Table 3 Composition of other bioactive ingredients contained in sea-buckthorn oil and their significance for a human health

From: Abundance of active ingredients in sea-buckthorn oil

Name of ingredient Quantity Significance
polyphenols 120–550 mg% antioxidant properties
phenolic acids: - salicylic - p-coumaric - m-coumaric - p-hydroxyphenyl lactic acid - gallic acid 71 wt.% of polyphenols participation in the creation of dyes and protection against the development of undesirable microflora [83]
flavonoids   inhibition of thrombosis and hypertension [80,84,86], and promotion of wound healing [87]
- flavan-3-ols - (catechin, epicatechin, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin) - kaempferol - quercetin - isorhamnetin - myricetin - rutin - proanthocyanidins   antioxidants, stabilization of ascorbic acid [88]
sterols 1 wt.% reduction of blood cholesterol level, importance in the treatment of burns, huge contribution in the synthesis of steroid hormones and other biologically active compounds [89, 90]
sitosterol 48–53 wt.% of phytosterols
tocopherols (vitamin E) 110 mg% antioxidants, according to the study, the degree of fruit ripeness effects on the content of tocopherols [91, 92]
α-tocopherol 62–68 wt.% of tocopherols
δ-tokoferol 32–37 wt.% of tocopherols
macronutrients   they are energy-providing chemical substances consumed by organisms in large quantities [93]
potassium 168–219 mg% affects muscle spasms
magnesium 8.3–9.5 mg% with calcium is responsible for the proper functioning of the nervous system
calcium 5–7.2 mg% for the proper functioning of the muscular system
micronutrients   they are required by organisms throughout life in small quantities to orchestrate a range of physiological functions [93]
iron 1.24 mg% component of hemoglobin, myoglobin and coenzymes many enzymes involved, among others, in the formation of ATP
zinc 0.25 mg% participates in various stages of protein biosynthesis, ingredient of insulin (also plays an important role in the storage of the pancreas), regulates the concentration of vitamin A is used in the formation of bone, stimulates growth and tissue repair (wound healing)
manganese necessary for proper development of tissue (especially bone) and for the functioning of the central nervous system
copper 0.006 mg% cofactor of many enzymes
nickel 0.015 mg% component of urease - an enzyme decomposing urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide
vitamins   they have diverse biochemical functions [93]
vitamin C 900 mg% antioxidant, participates in the synthesis of collagen fibers, removes free radicals and strengthens immunity.
vitamin A 60 mg% antioxidant
vitamin E (tocopherols) up to 160 mg% antioxidant
vitamin B1 0.016–0.035 mg% function as enzyme cofactors (coenzymes) or the precursors for them
vitamin B2 0.03–0.05 mg%
vitamin B6 (Folic acid) up to 0.079 mg%
vitamin K1 0.9–15 mg% normalizes blood clotting, and is essential for preventing osteoporosis and normal renal function
vitamin D   prevents rickets and osteomalacia
carotenoids 7.94–28.16 mg% antioxidants and plant pigments, anticancer properties [91, 94,95,96,97,98]
δ-carotene 14–25 wt.% of carotenoids
γ-carotene 30 wt.% of carotenoids
lycopene 30 wt.% of carotenoids
zeaxanthin and other carotenoids 15 wt.% of carotenoids