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Table 1 Demographic Characteristic and concentration of inflammation, endothelial activation and oxidative stress biomarkers in FH, RUC and NC groups

From: Enhanced status of inflammation and endothelial activation in subjects with familial hypercholesterolaemia and their related unaffected family members: a case control study

Parameters FH (n = 131) RUC (n = 68) NC (n = 214) p-value (FH vs. NC) p-value (FH vs. RUC) p-value (RUC vs. NC)
aAge (years) 45.1 ± 1.21 29.8 ± 3.00 43.6 ± 0.81 NS *** ***
bGender (% Female/Male) 55.7/44.3 60.3/39.7 58.4/41.6 NS NS NS
bEthnicity (% Malay/Chinese/Indian) 76.3/22.1/1.5 60.3/39.7/0.0 82.2/15.4/2.3 NS * ***
bCurrent smoker (%) 13.0 1.5 19.2 NS NS NS
aBMI (kg/m2) 24.8 ± 0.44 25.8 ± 2.18 25.3 ± 0.33 NS NS NS
aSystolic BP (mmHg) 133 ± 1.99 120 ± 4.00 124 ± 1.31 *** NS NS
aDiastolic BP (mmHg) 76.6 ± 1.03 77.4 ± 2.56 77.3 ± 0.91 NS NS NS
aTC(mmol/L) 8.43 ± 0.18 5.16 ± 0.40 5.44 ± 0,06 *** *** NS
aTG (mmol/L) 1.94 ± 0.15 1.12 ± 0.20 1.53 ± 0.06 * NS NS
aHDL-c (mmol/L) 1.28 ± 0.03 1.45 ± 0.26 1.47 ± 0.26 *** NS NS
aLDL-c (mmol/L) 6.26 ± 0.19 3.21 ± 0.33 3.29 ± 0.05 *** *** NS
Biomarkers of inflammation, endothelial activation and oxidative stress
ahsCRP (mg/L) 1.53 ± 1.24 2.54 ± 2.30 1.10 ± 0.89 * *** ***
asICAM-1 (ng/mL) 947 ± 742 945 ± 379 655 ± 191 *** NS **
aE-selectin (ng/mL) 175 ± 131 7.89 ± 4.05 21.6 ± 10.7 *** *** NS
aox-LDL (mU/L) 48.2 ± 26.8 25.2 ± 20.6 27.3 ± 13.2 *** *** NS
aMDA (nmol/mL) 2.57 ± 1.30 2.0 ± 0.9 1.20 ± 0.30 *** *** ***
aF2- Isoprostanes (pg/L) 645 ± 396 NA 398 ± 20.5 *** - -
  1. FH familial hypercholesterolaemia, RUC related unaffected controls, NC normolipaemic subjects BMI body mass index, BP blood pressure, TC total cholesterol, TG triglycerides, HDL-c high density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-c low density lipoprotein cholesterol, hsCRP high sensitivity C-reactive protein, sICAM-1 soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, MDA Malondialdehyde
  2. Data were expressed as amean ± SD, or bpercentage. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001, NS: not significant