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Table 1 Characteristics of the study subjects

From: Decreased circulating dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid levels are associated with total mortality in patients with acute cardiovascular disease and acute decompensated heart failure

  Survivor group (n = 256) Nonsurvivor group (n = 50) p
Age (years) 64.7 ± 15.2 75.3 ± 10.7 <0.01
Male (n, %) 175 (68.4) 34 (68.0) NS
Body mass index (kg/m2) 24.2 ± 4.5 22.1 ± 3.8 <0.01
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 134 ± 27 124 ± 32 0.03
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 78 ± 19 70 ± 18 <0.01
Heart rate (/min) 85 ± 30 82 ± 25 NS
Ejection fraction (%) 51.6 ± 16.7 39.7 ± 20.1 <0.01
Diabetes mellitus (n, %) 86 (33.6) 21 (42.0) NS
Dyslipidemia (n, %) 191 (74.6) 28 (56.0) 0.01
Hypertension (n, %) 174 (68.0) 34 (68.0%) NS
Atrial fibrillation (n, %) 59 (23.1) 22 (44.0) <0.01
Ischemic heart disease (n, %) 141 (55.1) 27 (54.0) NS
Diagnosis
 Acute decompensated heart failure (n, %) 71 (27.7) 34 (68.0) <0.01
 Acute coronary syndrome (n, %) 121 (47.3) 8 (16.0) <0.01
Laboratory data
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 172 ± 38 153 ± 27 <0.01
 LDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) 105 ± 31 93 ± 21 0.03
 HDL- cholesterol (mg/dL) 44 ± 14 42 ± 12 NS
 Triglycerides (mg/dL) 116 ± 72 86 ± 39 0.01
 eGFR (mL/min/1.73m2) 71.9 ± 27.4 45.4 ± 26.8 <0.01
 Hemoglobin A1c (%) 6.2 ± 1.2 6.1 ± 0.8 NS
 Total protein (g/dL) 6.6 ± 0.6 6.5 ± 0.6 NS
 Albumin (g/dL) 3.8 ± 0.6 3.4 ± 0.5 <0.01
 Brain natriuretic peptide (pg/mL) 490 ± 762 1443 ± 1357 <0.01
Medication
 Diuretics (n, %) 45 (17.7) 29 (59.2) <0.01
 Antiplatelets (n, %) 95 (37.4) 25 (51.0) NS
 Anticoagulants (n, %) 39 (15.4) 22 (44.9) <0.01
 ACE-I/ARBs (n, %) 111 (43.7) 29 (59.2) NS
 β-blockers (n, %) 82 (32.3) 22 (44.9) NS
 Calcium channel blockers (n, %) 94 (37.0) 18 (36.7) NS
 Inotropic agents (n, %) 3 (1.2) 9 (18.4) <0.01
 Statins (n, %) 81 (31.9) 16 (32.7) NS
 Oral hypoglycemic agents (n, %) 45 (17.7) 9 (18.4) NS
 Insulin (n, %) 15 (5.9) 3 (6.1) NS
  1. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation or number (percentage)
  2. LDL-cholesterol = low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol = high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, eGFR = estimated glomerular filtration rate, ACE-I = angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB = angiotensin-2 receptor blocker