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Fig. 1 | Lipids in Health and Disease

Fig. 1

From: Polyunsaturated fatty acids: any role in rheumatoid arthritis?

Fig. 1

n3 PUFAs act, directly and indirectly, both as anti-inflammatory and as pro-resolving mediators. On MFs, they are able to inhibit the synthesis and secretion of MMPs, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6, thus promoting IL-10 secretion. On T H Ls, they exhibit anti-proliferative features, mediated by the inhibition of IL-2 secretion. Moreover, they compete with n-6 arachidonic acid, determining a reduction in lipid derived pro-inflammatory compounds production. In addition, the anti-inflammatory action exerted by EPA and DHA is mediated by a reduction in the expression of adhesion molecules both on immune cells and on endothelium. On the other hand, pro-resolving mediators, such as E-series and D-series resolvins, produced by the metabolism of EPA and DHA, are responsible for tissue restoration and return to homeostasis blocking neutrophil recruitment, promoting the recruitment and the activation of monocytes and mediating non phlogistic phagocytosis. PUFA, Polyunsaturated fatty acids; EPA, Eicosapentaenoic acid; DHA, Docosahexaenoicacid; MFs, Macrophages; T H Ls, T-helper Lymphocytes; PG, Prostaglandin; TX, Thromboxane; IL, Interleukin

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