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Table 2 Effect sizes of included studies in this meta-analysis

From: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol efflux capacity is inversely associated with cardiovascular risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study ID CEC
(median/mean)
Events HR/RR/OR (95% CI) Adjustment factors
Bauer, L 2017 [30] 12.2 ± 2.4 CVE Q1: 1;
Q2: 0.58 (0.33–1.00);
Q3: 0.67 (0.39–1.15);
Q4: 0.91 (0.51–1.62);
Age, sex, BMI, BP, smoking status, GFR, and log albuminuria
Tejera-Segura, B 2017 [31] Control: 16.9 ± 10.4;
Case: 18.9 ± 9.0
Subclinical atherosclerosis 0.94 (0.89–0.98) Age, sex, SBP, DM, ESR, DAS28 and tocilizumab use
Kopecky, C, 2016 [32] T1: 0.73;
T2: 0.89;
T3: 1.08
CVD 0.92 (0.83–1.02) Traditional risk factors, LDL-C, HDL-C, apoA-I, and CRP
Javaheri, A, 2016 [33] Alive: 0.98 ± 0.03;
Dead: 0.89 ± 0.03.
Mortality 0.19 (0.06–0.56) HDL-C, LDL-C, ischemic origin, and rejection
Mody, P, 2016 [34] / CVD 0.35 (0.23–0.55) TC, HDL-C, history of blood pressure medication use, BMI, and CRP
Liu, C 2016 [35] Q1: 0.70 (0.17–0.79);
Q2: 0.86 (0.79–0.93);
Q3: 1.00 (0.93–1.07);
Q4: 1.15 (1.07–2.01)
All-cause death and cardiovascular death All-cause death:
0.10 (0.01–0.74);
Cardiovascular death: 0.08 (0.01–0.68)
Age, sex, BMI, smoking and alcohol drinking, hypertension, DM, dyslipidemia, lipid-lowering drug use, TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, and apoA-I
Zhang, J 2016 [36] / CVD 0.30 (0.14–0.67) Age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, current smoking, LDL-C, HDL-C, Apo A, Apo B, and regular medication
Ogura, M, 2016 [37] / Incidence of CVD 0.95 (0.90–0.99) Age, sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking history, obesity, LDL-C, TG, HDL-C
Annema, W, 2016 [38] T1 (%): 5.8(5.3–6.4);
T2 (%): 7.3(6.8–7.9);
T3 (%): 9.0(8.2–9.8)
All-cause death and cardiovascular death CV mortality:
0.96 (0.72–1.27);
All-cause mortality:
0.84 (0.68–1.04)
Age, sex, apo A-I, HDL-C cholesterol and creatinine clearance
Ishikawa, T, 2016 [39] CAD: 0.86 ± 0.26;
Non-CAD: 1.02 ± 0.38
Incidence of CVD 0.23 (0.056–0.91) Baseline adjustment
Saleheen, D, 2015 [40] / Incidence of CHD events Top vs. bottom:
0.64 (0.51–0.80);
Per 1 SD:
0.80 (0.70–0.90)
Age, sex, diabetes, hypertension, cigarette use, alcohol use, waist:hip ratio and BMI, LDL-C, TG and HDL-C
Rohatgi, A, 2014 [12] 0.21–3.93 Incidence of CVD 0.33 (0.109–0.55) Age, sex, race, diabetes, hypertension,smoking, BMI, TG, TC, and statin use
Li, X M, 2013 [41] / Incidence of CAD and MACE 1.85 (1.11–3.06) Age, sex, smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, LDL-C, and HDL-C
Khera, A V, 2011 [29] Case: 0.82;
Control: 0.9
CAD Per 1 SD increase:
0.75 (0.63–0.90);
Q4 vs. Q1:
0.48 (0.30–0.78)
Cardiovascular risk factors and HDL-C
Khera, A V, 2011 [29] 0.77(0.36–1.68) CVD prevalence Per 1 SD increase:
0.97 (0.94–0.99)
Age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors a nd HDL-C
  1. Notes: CEC cholesterol efflux capacity, RR risk ratio, HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, OR odds ratio, NOS Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, CKD chronic kidney disease, CVE cardiovascular event, BMI body mass index, BP blood pressure, SBP systolic blood pressure, GFR glomerular filtration rate, RA rheumatoid arthritis, DM diabetes mellitus, ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate, CVD cardiovascular disease, LDL-C low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, Apo apolipoprotein, CRP C-reactive Protein, TC total cholesterol, CAD coronary artery disease, Q quartile, TG triglyceride, CHD coronary heart disease events, T tertiles, MACE major adverse cardiovascular event