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Fig. 4 | Lipids in Health and Disease

Fig. 4

From: Isoprenoids responsible for protein prenylation modulate the biological effects of statins on pancreatic cancer cells

Fig. 4

Scheme of the mevalonate pathway and isoprenoid synthesis. The mevalonate pathway (also known as the isoprenoid pathway) is an essential metabolic pathway in a human body producing a five-carbon building block called isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP). IPP is used to make fully functional biomolecules belonging into a large group of isoprenoids. Two intermediates in this pathway, FPP and GGPP, play also an immense role in post-translational modification of signaling proteins involved in a wide array of cellular functions including proliferation, and also carcinogenesis. The whole mevalonate pathway begins with acetyl-CoA, the rate limiting enzymatic step is catalyzed by HMG-CoA reductase (a therapeutic target of statins), whose inhibition leads to depletion signaling isoprenoids. Continuous and dashed lines represent one and multistep reaction, respectively. HMG-CoA reductase can be blocked by statins (in red)

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