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Table 2 Principal alkyl and alkenyl glycerolipids identified in GI cancer patients, the type of tissue sample analyzed and techniques of lipidic analysis employed

From: Plasmalogen lipids: functional mechanism and their involvement in gastrointestinal cancer

  Samples Biomarker Analytical Methods References
Liver Hepatocellular carcinoma ↑ Neutral 0-alkylglycerolipids Gas-chromatographic (GC) and colorimetric estimation [106]
Colon Tissue - 16 malignant human colon and 11 non-malignant ↑ PC plasmalogen
↓ PE plasmalogen
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P NMR) [85]
Colon Tissue - human colon carcinoma ↑ PC and PE plasmalogen Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) [5]
Esophageal Tissue - 36 malignant esophageal tumors ↓ PE plasmalogen Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P NMR) [77]
Colorectal cancer liver metastasis Tissue – 40 liver metastases of colorectal cancers and 31 primary colorectal adenocarcinomas ↑PE plasmalogen (34:2) Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) [87]
Pancreatic Serum – 40 japanese pancreatic cancer patients and 50 controls ↓ PE plasmalogen Flow-injection Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FI-FTICR-MS) [75]
Colorectal cancer Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in 59 CRC patients (tumor stages I–IV) ↓ PC and PE plasmalogen (P-38:4/ P-36:4/) in visceral adipose tissue Gas Chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CG-TOF-MS) and Liquid Chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QqTOF-MS) [107]
Gastric Plasma - 29 gastric carcinoma patients and 30 normal controls ↑ Plasmalogen Method of Svennerholm (iodine disappearance method) [88]
Colorectal cancer liver metastasis Tissue - 52 liver lesions from 50 patients ↑ PE Plasmalogen (P-16:0/18:2, P-16:0/18:1) Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) [91]